Stem Cells Translational Medicine Alpha Clinic Panel: Standing On The Precipice

The stem cell field keeps advancing rapidly, with biological discoveries and knowledge expanding daily. However, the clinical pace has been slower, mostly due to the unique nature of human trials with biologics, the expenses involved, and long term follow up needed. The field is now truly standing at the precipice, where either it continues to move upward in its progress, or drops into an abyss of unsolvable challenges. AlphaMed Press sponsored a panel of experts to cover this timely topic. Participants include Drs. Mahendra Rao, Jan Nolta, Joanne Kurtzberg, and Anthony Atala. 

Journal Club Discussions

April 20, 2016

A new Stem Cells study shows that reselected progenitor cells from cord blood may be an effective treatment for pancreatic β cell loss

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Article Scans

May 2, 2016
The identification of a marker which is lost as mesenchymal stem cells enter senescence could be applied to improve their therapeutic worth
May 2, 2016
A new study finds that neural stem cells directly differentiated from fibroblasts may be an important part of an improved strategy to treat aggressive brain tumors
April 25, 2016
New research describes a novel role for the REST transcription factor in the cardiac-specific differentiation of embryonic stem cells

Video Summary

Video abstract from Nobuyuki Sakayori, Takako Kikkawa, Hisanori Tokuda, Emiko Kiryu, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Tetsuya Yamada, Hiroyuki Arai, Jing X. Kang, Hideki Katagiri, Hiroshi Shibata, Sheila M. Innis, Makoto Arita and Noriko Osumi on their STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites." Read the paper here.

Video abstract from Ashay D. Bhatwadekar PhD, Yaqian Duan MD, Harshini Chakravarthy MS, Maria Korah BS, Sergio Caballero MS, Julia V. Busik PhD and Maria B. Grant MD on their STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Dysregulation Results in Diabetic Retinopathy." Read the paper here.

Video abstract from Drs. Evans and Janeczek’s on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Transient Canonical Wnt Stimulation Enriches Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Isolates for Osteoprogenitors" Read the Paper here.

Graphical Abstracts

Schematic highlighting promising primary and adjunctive neuroregenerative strategies for traumatic spinal cord injury. Transplanted autogenic and allogenic cells can differentiate to oligodendrocytes to remyelinate denuded axons (1), neurons to restore functional neural circuits (2), or can be modified to express critical pro-regenerative factors to positively modulate the microenvironment (8). Multipotent cells can also be mobilized from endogenous cell pools, particularly the central canal, to facilitate recovery (5). Both exogenous and endogenous regeneration may be further bolstered by providing molecular signalling to direct axon regrowth (3), enhancing synaptic plasticity (4), providing a structural framework for engraftment (e.g. biomaterials) (6), and/or degrading the inhibitory glial scar (7).

Paracetamol in vitro toxicity in stem-cell derived hepatocytes (hESC-heps) and primary human hepatocytes (PHH). hESC-heps (at day 17) and PHH (24 hours post- replating) were induced with different concentrations of paracetamol (0-50 mM) for 24 hours. The CellTitre viability assay (Promega) was used to measure the ATP levels. The IC50 was calculated from the function f(x)= ax + b.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) increase secretion of exosomes upon exposure to PAD-like conditions. (A): Quantification of total protein content of vesicles derived from MSC under EX, IC, and PAD culture conditions using DC assay. (B): Scanning electron micrograph of MSCs cultured in EX culture conditions indicating microvesicle release (blue arrows) from the cell surface (scale bar = 5 μm, × 5k). (C): Scanning electron micrograph of MSCs cultured under PAD conditions (scale bar 2 μm, × 10k) indicating exosome adhesion to cell surface (red arrows). (D): Transmission electron micrograph of MSC derived exosomes with 2% uranyl acetate negative staining (scale bar 200 nm, × 25k). Abbreviations: EX, expansion condition; Exo, exosomes; IC, intermediate condition; MV, microvesicle; PAD, peripheral arterial disease.