Recently, increasing clinical evidence has highlighted the important role of proinflammatory mediators and infiltrating inflammatory cell populations inducing chronic inflammation and diseases in damaged cartilage. This work should be of broad interest because it proposes an implantable biomimetic material, which holds the promise for a variety of medical conditions that necessitate the functional restoration of damaged cartilage tissue (such as trauma, diseases, deformities, or cancer).
There is evidence that systemic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) promotes neuronal maintenance in the postnatal/adult hippocampus. Other studies have suggested the implication of locally-produced IGF-I in the modulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo but this concept was not demonstrated. We present novel findings showing that brain IGF-I directs the generation of granule neurons from neural stem cells in the postnatal/adult mouse hippocampus. We also show that the regulation of gene expression and cycling cell number by IGF-I may be part of the mechanisms involved in these actions.
Video abstract from Nobuyuki Sakayori, Takako Kikkawa, Hisanori Tokuda, Emiko Kiryu, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Tetsuya Yamada, Hiroyuki Arai, Jing X. Kang, Hideki Katagiri, Hiroshi Shibata, Sheila M. Innis, Makoto Arita and Noriko Osumi on their STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites." Read the paper here.
Video abstract from Ashay D. Bhatwadekar PhD, Yaqian Duan MD, Harshini Chakravarthy MS, Maria Korah BS, Sergio Caballero MS, Julia V. Busik PhD and Maria B. Grant MD on their STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Dysregulation Results in Diabetic Retinopathy." Read the paper here.
Video abstract from Drs. Evans and Janeczek’s on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Transient Canonical Wnt Stimulation Enriches Human Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Isolates for Osteoprogenitors" Read the Paper here.
Stem cells are emerging as a scientifically plausible treatment and possible cure for cerebral palsy, but are not yet proven. The lack of valid animal models has significantly hampered the scope of clinical trials. Despite the state of current treatment evidence, parents remain optimistic about the potential improvements from stem cell intervention and feel compelled to exhaust all therapeutic options, including stem cell tourism. Receiving unproven therapies from unvalidated sources is potentially dangerous. Thus it is essential that researchers and clinicians stay up to date. A systematic review and meta-analysis summarizing and aggregating current research data may provide more conclusive evidence to inform treatment decision making and help direct future research.
At 1 hour post- traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), 2.5 million human stromal cells (human umbilical cord matrix cells, HUCMCs; or human brain vascular pericytes, HBVPs) were systemically infused via the tail vein (A). While a majority of cells ended up in the lungs, liver and spleen, the spleen was found to be the site of IL-10 synthesis/release (B). Systemic changes in IL-10 were associated with decreased blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability and reduced spinal cord hemorrhage at acute time-points (C). Weekly-standardized behavioural testing revealed that the early protective effects of cell infusion lead to some improvements in functional recovery (D). Together, these data warrant further study of the splenic role in secondary pathology and cell-based reparative mechanisms for future clinical translation.
Brown adipose pads are present in the interscapular region of human fetus. Tissue sections from a representative fetus (12 week gestation). Hematoxylin-eosin staining of fetal interscapular adipose tissue revealed the presence of some dispersed cells with a multilocular aspect, characteristic of brown adipocytes (A–C, arrowheads). Immunohistochemistry on serial sections confirmed the brown nature of the multilocular cells which were positive for the brown marker uncoupling-protein-1 (UCP-1) (E–F). Negative control with unstained multilocular cells (D, arrowheads). Magnification: (A): × 10; (B, D, E): × 20; (C): × 40; (F): × 60.