Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to cognitive dysfunctions without methods for cure or prevention. This study demonstrated that transplantation of protein-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reduced plaque deposition and restored memory impairment in 5XFAD mice, an AD animal model. Also, the stem cell niche of these mice promotes differentiation of protein-iPSCs to glial cells, especially oligodendrocytes.
CXCR4 is a stem/progenitor cell surface receptor specific for the cytokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 alpha. While previous studies show that blood-borne CXCR4-expressing progenitor cells contribute to intimal hyperplasia by homing to the arterial subintima which is enriched with SDF-1 alpha, it remains unclear whether CXCR4-expressing cells from other sources also play a role.
Research into glioblastoma multiforme brain tumors uncovers a potentially exciting new therapeutic target – myeloid-derived suppressor cells
Video abstract from Dr. Allen on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Angiopellosis as an Alternative Mechanism of Cell Extravasation" Read the Paper here.
Video abstract from Drs. Serena, Keiran, Ceperuelo-Mallafre, Ejarque, Fradera, Roche, Nuñez-Roa, Vendrell, and Férnandez-Veledo on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Alters the Immune Properties of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells" Read the Paper here.
Video abstract from Nobuyuki Sakayori, Takako Kikkawa, Hisanori Tokuda, Emiko Kiryu, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Tetsuya Yamada, Hiroyuki Arai, Jing X. Kang, Hideki Katagiri, Hiroshi Shibata, Sheila M. Innis, Makoto Arita and Noriko Osumi on their STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Maternal dietary imbalance between omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids impairs neocortical development via epoxy metabolites." Read the paper here.
Stem cells are emerging as a scientifically plausible treatment and possible cure for cerebral palsy, but are not yet proven. The lack of valid animal models has significantly hampered the scope of clinical trials. Despite the state of current treatment evidence, parents remain optimistic about the potential improvements from stem cell intervention and feel compelled to exhaust all therapeutic options, including stem cell tourism. Receiving unproven therapies from unvalidated sources is potentially dangerous. Thus it is essential that researchers and clinicians stay up to date. A systematic review and meta-analysis summarizing and aggregating current research data may provide more conclusive evidence to inform treatment decision making and help direct future research.
At 1 hour post- traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), 2.5 million human stromal cells (human umbilical cord matrix cells, HUCMCs; or human brain vascular pericytes, HBVPs) were systemically infused via the tail vein (A). While a majority of cells ended up in the lungs, liver and spleen, the spleen was found to be the site of IL-10 synthesis/release (B). Systemic changes in IL-10 were associated with decreased blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability and reduced spinal cord hemorrhage at acute time-points (C). Weekly-standardized behavioural testing revealed that the early protective effects of cell infusion lead to some improvements in functional recovery (D). Together, these data warrant further study of the splenic role in secondary pathology and cell-based reparative mechanisms for future clinical translation.
Brown adipose pads are present in the interscapular region of human fetus. Tissue sections from a representative fetus (12 week gestation). Hematoxylin-eosin staining of fetal interscapular adipose tissue revealed the presence of some dispersed cells with a multilocular aspect, characteristic of brown adipocytes (A–C, arrowheads). Immunohistochemistry on serial sections confirmed the brown nature of the multilocular cells which were positive for the brown marker uncoupling-protein-1 (UCP-1) (E–F). Negative control with unstained multilocular cells (D, arrowheads). Magnification: (A): × 10; (B, D, E): × 20; (C): × 40; (F): × 60.