This study demonstrates the regulation of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis with regard to endochondral bone formation in high-density stem cell systems through the controlled presentation of inductive factors from incorporated microparticles.
Controlled Dual Growth Factor Delivery From Microparticles Incorporated Within Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aggregates for Enhanced Bone Tissue Engineering via Endochondral Ossification
Significance Statement: Skeletal muscle mass and function is critical for the maintenance of health, and the decline of muscle mass during aging inversely correlates with mortality. Adult muscle stem cells provide an important target for strategies to maintain muscle mass, but the molecular mechanisms that control the activation of these stem cells in vivo are still incompletely understood.
Video abstract from Dr. Rajarshi Pal on his recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Dysregulation of Wnt-signaling and a candidate set of miRNAs underlie the effect of metformin on neural crest cell development". Read the Paper.
Video abstract from Drs. Ambrosio and Barchowsky on their recently published STEM CELLS paper entitled, "Arsenic Promotes NF-κB-Mediated Fibroblast Dysfunction and Matrix Remodeling to Impair Muscle Stem Cell Function". Read the Paper.
Video abstract from Drs. Sascha Ott and Jan Brosens on their recently published Stem Cells paper entitled, "Loss of Endometrial Plasticity in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss". Read the Paper.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to peripheral arterial disease-like (PAD) conditions increase expression of a diverse profile of angiogenic proteins which are subsequently packaged into exosome for secretion and induce angiogenesis in endothelial cells.
Growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible 45 alpha (Gadd45a) expression is induced by γ-irradiation in murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). GADD45A upregulation neither causes cell cycle arrest nor cell death in HSCs but essentially affects the balance between their self-renewal (SR) and differentiation (Diff). Elevated GADD45A levels robustly induce and accelerate the differentiation in HSCs via the GADD45A-mediated activation of MAP kinase.
The data presented in this manuscript suggest that in the Gata1low model, myelofibrotic stem cells are sustained in the spleen by a niche formed by the interaction of at least three distinctive cell populations. First neutrophils establish a P-selectin dependent interaction with megakaryocytes that leads to release of TGF-β. TGF-β induces the transition of a resident spleen cell population to activated fibrocytes which in turn interact with their protrusions with the megakaryocytes creating a super-cellular structure that hosts, and possibly supports, the proliferation of myelofibrotic stem cells in the spleen.
New research suggests that immune cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells may be useful in the fight against cancer.