The hematopoietic system is essential for life, and normally has the capacity to sustain function for the duration of our lifetimes in spite of natural declination, which is associated with loss of DNA repair (including as DNA mismatch repair). Astronauts are exposed to ionizing radiation sources that are not commonly found on earth (such as HZE ions) and thus may display unforeseen risks that need accounting in NASA risk models.
This study findings have important implications for the treatment of salivary gland hypofunction, which is caused by radiation therapy for treatment of head and neck cancers, usually incurable, and leads to severe life-disturbing side effects. Currently, stem cell-based therapy has been harnessed for the restoration of salivary gland hypofunction. However, the exact mechanism of the contribution of the transplanted stem cells remains unclear. In this study, we showed for the first time that fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), among paracrine factors released from hypoxia-activated adipose mesenchymal stem cells (hAdMSCsHPX) exerts antiapoptotic effects and contributes to tissue remodeling of radiation-affected salivary glands using our novel three-dimensional (3D) coculture model as well as in vivo transplants. FGFR signaling activated by hAdMSCsHPX and one of their secreted (possibly therapeutic) molecules, FGF10, may show us key directions for further development of cell-free therapeutics. In addition, the 3D coculture model may be a useful alternative for research into the therapeutic mechanisms and for the development of a new radioprotective drug.
Researchers establish that transplantation of growth factor-secreting human NPCs can delay paralysis and extend lifespan in a rat model of ALS