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Brief reviews of recently published articles, organized by stem cell type.

August 28, 2012 | Cardiac Stem Cells

The lack of innate regenerative potential in the heart has made it a focus for external regenerative therapy (Yacoub et al). Cellular therapies include the derivation of cardiomyocytes (CMs), which account for a majority of cells in the heart, from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However these methods have associated challenges such as their...

August 28, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

The scarcity of progenitor cells obtained directly from human embryos for application in basic research and the development of cellular therapies leaves human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), as the most useful cell types to this end. However, the identification of progenitors from hPSC sources suffers from...

August 28, 2012 | Cancer Stem Cells

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are now becoming acknowledged as an important factor in tumor initiation and sustainment (Dick, 2009 and Reya et al) and, unfortunately, it has been shown that conventional chemotherapeutics are often ineffective against human CSCs (Guan et al) and have detrimental effects on healthy stem and progenitor cells (Smith et al). This therefore...

August 22, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

‘miR-290 Cluster Modulates Pluripotency by Repressing Canonical NF-ĸB Signaling’

MicroRNAs (miRNA) have emerged as central players in regulating multiple aspects of cellular function, including the induction and control of pluripotency....

August 22, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

HIF-2α Suppresses p53 to Enhance the Stemness and Regenerative Potential of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Tissue stem cells are understood to contribute to the repair and regeneration of the inflamed and damaged tissues through the secretion of growth factors and antioxidants (Prockop 2009) which they express at high levels...

August 22, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

DNA Hypermethylation in Somatic Cells Correlates with Higher Reprogramming Efficiency

Widespread epigenetic remodelling is acknowledged as being a critical process in the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and the incomplete erasure of the epigenetic signature of somatic cells (“...

August 22, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

A Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Conserved Features of Stem Cell Pluripotency in Planarians and Mammals

Planarians are free-living freshwater flatworms well-known for their extreme regenerative abilities linked to the existence of a large population of pluripotent adult stem cells (ASCs) (Wagner et al...

July 31, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

miRNAs Regulate p21Waf1-Cip1 Protein Expression and the DNA Damage Response in hESCs

p53-p21-mediated regulation of the G1/S checkpoint pathway of the human cell cycle is a vital control point of proliferation, and the molecular pathways governing the G1/S transition are also known to play a key role in the DNA damage...

July 31, 2012 | Cancer Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

Targeting RSK Eliminates Tumor-Initiating Cells by Inactivating YB-1 in Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) or Her2/neu andtherefore does not respond to conventional...

July 31, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

Dual Inhibition of Src and GSK3 Maintains mESCs, Whose Differentiation Is Mechanically Regulated by Src Signaling

Much is known about the effects of soluble factors and how they impact signalling pathways to control the basic biology of embryonic stem cells (ESCs).   Recent studies have revealed that the mechanical...

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