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Brief reviews of recently published articles, organized by stem cell type.

January 23, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

By Stuart P. Atkinson

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) have a remarkably short G1 and G2 phase, which in somatic cells is determined by Cdk activity alongside other cell-cycle related proteins which fluctuate during the cell cycle due to APC/C mediated degradation. APC/C is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, which can be activated by Cdc20 and Cdh1...

January 23, 2012 | Mesenchymal Stem Cells

From Nature Medicine
By Stuart P. Atkinson

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells which are capable of differentiating into various cell types (osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes (Friedenstein et al, Pittinger et al and Prockop)) and their regenerative capabilities shown to be of clinical importance in the treatment of...

January 18, 2012 | Society

Four people were recently indicted on federal charges in the United States for selling unapproved stem cell treatments and other biological products to seriously ill patients. The patients were falsely told that the treatments were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, according to the indictment.

Francisco Morales, Larry Stowe, Jesus Alberto Ramon and Dr. Vincent Dammai...

January 11, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

From Genes and Development
By Stuart P. Atkinson

Although induced stem cell technology promises a source of patient-specific cells for cell replacement in diseased or dysfunctional tissues, multiple studies have shown that activation of cellular senescence pathways is a barrier to the reprogramming process and some studies have shown that cells differentiated from iPSCs...

January 11, 2012 | Ageing

From Nature
By Stuart P. Atkinson

Cellular senescence is a mechanism by which dysfunctional or aging cells are growth arrested and plays an important role in controlling tumourigenesis. Senescent cells also accumulate in various tissues and organs with ageing (Campisi, 2005) but whether this is causally implicated in age-related tissue dysfunction and whether their...

January 4, 2012 | Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into various kinds of cell types, including neuron-like cells in culture (Woodbury et al, Qian and Saltzman, Levy et al and Rismanchi...

January 4, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

From Stem Cells
By Stuart P. Atkinson

Current knowledge of the mechanisms of neural induction in mammals is not clear, but data from other model systems has allowed some details to be uncovered. Examinations on mammalian neural induction are mostly performed using in vitro models of neuroepithelial differentiation from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and confirm...

January 4, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

From Stem Cells
By Stuart P. Atkinson

In mouse, Pten plays a negative role in the self-renewal of embryonic and adult cell types (Stiles et al, Korkaya et al and Groszer et al) through negative regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling and while studies have shown the importance of PI3K/Akt signalling in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) (Ding et al and...

December 13, 2011 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

From Stem Cells
By Stuart P. Atkinson

The ability to monitor the homogeneity of pluripotent cell cultures and their differentiated derivatives is potentially useful if such cells are to be made applicable to cellular therapy. Another use for such monitoring systems is in the generation of pure induced pluripotent stem cultures (iPSCs) containing only fully reprogrammed...

December 13, 2011 | Direct Reprogramming

From Cell Stem Cell
By Stuart P. Atkinson

Direct conversion of one somatic cell to another somatic cell type, completely bypassing the pluripotent stage through the forced expression of lineage specific transcription factors has emerged as a large “splinter group” of research, taking many lessons from induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. The direct generation...