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Adipose Provides Cells for Bone Repair

Original article from STEM CELLS Translational Medicine

“An Abundant Perivascular Source of Stem Cells for Bone Tissue Engineering”

The isolation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells for bone formation/regeneration currently relies on their ability to adhere to culture plates and their extended growth in vitro, which carries the risk of adaption and loss of function in vivo. A more efficacious method would be the direct identification and isolation of such cells from primary sources, a strategy which has been previously attempted from the freshly isolated total stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from adipose tissue. However, these initial studies found poor bone formation/regeneration (Muller et al and Cheung et al) perhaps linked to the heterogenous nature of the SVF, which contain many non-mesenchymal cell types. Researchers from the laboratories of Kang Ting, Bruno Péault and Chia Soo previously reported on the MSC-like characteristics of human perivascular stem cells (hPSCs) found in adipose tissue, identifying two subpopulations; CD45-CD146+CD34- pericytes surrounding microvessels and capillaries (Crisan et al 2008 and Crisan et al 2009) and a second distinct CD45-CD146-CD34+ adventitial cell type, associated with the outermost connective tissue covering larger blood vessels (Corselli et al). Another previous paper from the authors also suggested that hPSCs outperformed human SVF cells (hSVFs) in osteogenic differentiation and bone formation (James et al). Now, in a follow-up study in Stem Cells Translational Medicine the group extend their studies on hPSCs, identifying them as a highly reproducible and efficacious cell source for bone regeneration (James and Zara et al).

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