Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome: Concise Review
Aswin Abraham, et al., STEM CELLS Translational Medicine
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are being actively explored as an alternative to whole-cell therapy. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a devastating clinical condition with high mortality rate and no pharmacological treatment therefore novel therapies for this condition are critically needed. This review discusses preclinical studies where therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) EVs was investigated in the models of lung injury. Evidence suggests that MSC EVs demonstrate potent protective effect mediated through variety of mechanisms related to the transfer of EVs cargo to the recipient cells. Further research into the mechanism of action, biodistribution, standardization, and bio manufacturing is needed to facilitate clinical translation of this exciting new cell therapy product.
Knockdown of formin mDia2 alters lamin B1 levels and increases osteogenesis in stem cells
Jeyantt S. Sankaran, et al., STEM CELLS
Nuclear morphology contributes to chromatin organization and gene expression in cells. We suggest that nuclear localized formin mDia2 alters nuclear actin dynamics, nucleoskeletal lamin integrity, and may serve as a means to investigate nuclear actin morphology without grossly affecting cytoplasmic actin structure. Silencing mDia2 disrupts the actin-lamin nucleoskeleton and alters nuclear morphology. These effects of mDia2 deficiency cause release of mesenchymal stem cells from their stem state and lead to differentiation. This demonstrates that structural arrangement of the nucleoskeleton plays a role in stem cell lineage commitment.
Researchers define an optimal population of rat meniscus tendon tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for use in meniscus repair and osteoarthritis suppression
Research highlights the requirement for constant β‐catenin degradation via adenomatous polyposis coli activity to support human embryonic stem cell self-renewal
Culture of pluripotent stem cells within a microfluidic platform allows the exploration of the developmental processes taking place in the early human embryo