Body: A group of rare diseases called ciliopathies -- polycystic kidney disease notable among them -- emerge from defects in cilia. These are the tiny hairlike structures on the surface of almost every cell type. Scientists experimentally 'knocked out,' or genetically deleted, the cilia in a population of otherwise normal human pluripotent stem cells. Subsequently, human tissues and mini-organ structures (organoids) derived from these cilia-free stem cells manifested ciliopathy-like symptoms, such those seen in polycystic kidney disease or in certain problems in brain development.
Body: Researchers have developed a method for the generation of 3D lacrimal gland-like organoids, which model the characteristics of the tear duct, from human induced pluripotent stem cells. When transplanted into animals that partially or completely lacked tear ducts, the organoids demonstrated further differentiation into mature lacrimal gland tissue. This organoid system may serve as a platform for the development of therapies and drug discovery for the treatment of severe dry eye syndrome.
Body: Research shows how a protein complex, called chromatin assembly factor-1, controls genome organization to maintain lineage fidelity.
Body: Metastatic breast cancer cells abuse macrophages, a type of immune cell, to promote the settlement of cancer metastases in the lungs. The reprogrammed macrophages stimulate blood vessel cells to secrete a cocktail of metastasis-promoting proteins that are part of the so-called metastatic niche.
Body: Scientists have produced stem cells from the endangered Grévy's zebra using human reprogramming factors. Further comprehensive gene analyses identified key genes that are also found in human and mouse cells, providing insight into evolutionary conservation between mammals.
Body: Genetics and other factors that can determine if a woman is at risk for a recurrence of breast cancer have been identified, providing new research avenues for preventing a new tumor from developing.
Body: To this day, cavities and damage to enamel are repaired by dentists with the help of synthetic white filling materials. There is no natural alternative to this. But a new 3D model with human dental stem cells could change this in the future.
Body: In proof-of-concept experiments, scientists say they have successfully cultivated human muscle stem cells capable of renewing themselves and repairing muscle tissue damage in mice, potentially advancing efforts to treat muscle injuries and muscle-wasting disorders in people.
Body: When the bacterium Helicobacter pylori infects the stomach, it causes gastric inflammation and increases the risk of stomach cancer. Researchers have been able to elucidate characteristic changes which occur inside the gastric glands during an H. pylori infection. The researchers discovered a novel mechanism which, by restricting cell division in healthy stomach tissue, protects the stomach against cancerous changes. An inflammation of the stomach, however, deactivates this mechanism, enabling cells to grow in an uncontrolled manner. The researchers' findings may herald a new treatment target in stomach cancer.
Body: Scientists show that endocrine stem cells in the pancreas disappear after birth, and detail the genetic identity of the different types of pancreatic hormone-producing cells.