Body: Researchers have discovered a new type of stem cell that resembles cells in the early human embryo during the transition of 'genomic power' from mother to embryo. During this major developmental event the genome is reset and reorganized with large numbers of embryonic genes being expressed for the first time. If unsuccessful, further embryo development fails or there may be implications for later developmental stages. The newly identified stem cells provide the closest model available to study this process without the need for human embryos. This model of the early embryo will allow the study of human genome activation in a much more detailed way, providing important functional insights into genome regulation, developmental disorders, and early embryo loss.
Body: Some genetic mutations linked to leukemia are less than useful guides to making treatment decisions for patients. A new study suggests a group of clinical signs that can be paired with genetic testing to better inform the timing of more aggressive treatment.
Body: Tendons connect muscles with bones. When injured, they are really difficult to repair, and the existing therapeutic strategies often have complications. Researchers constructed artificial tendons that were mechanically and biologically similar to normal tendons using human induced pluripotent stem cells. The tendons were successfully implanted in a mouse model of tendon rupture. These findings offer a novel strategy for tendon repair and regeneration.
Body: Researchers have used sound waves to turn stem cells into bone cells, in a tissue engineering advance that could one day help patients regrow bone lost to cancer or degenerative disease.
Body: Embryonic stem cells and other pluripotent cells divide rapidly and have the capacity to become nearly any cell type in the body. Scientists have long sought to understand the signals that prompt stem cells to switch off pluripotency and adopt their final functional state. In a new study, researchers report that they have identified a key regulator of this process, a molecule known as BEND3.
Body: Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder where red blood cells become sickle/crescent shaped. It causes frequent infections, swelling in the hands and legs, pain, severe tiredness and delayed growth or puberty. Treatment typically focuses on controlling symptoms and may include pain medicines during crises; hydroxyurea to reduce the number of pain episodes; antibiotics and vaccines to prevent bacterial infections and blood transfusions. While a remedy for this severe disease has remained elusive, a recent study, if proven applicable, may be a possible cure.
Body: Researchers have discovered that the protein YME1L regulates the production of new nerve cells and the maintenance of neural stem cells in the adult brain. This holds great potential for regenerative treatments after brain injuries and other diseases.
Body: Researchers have discovered that metabolic changes affect how blood cells are formed during embryonic development. They found a previously unknown metabolic switch with a key role in how different types of blood cells develop. This means blood cell formation can be directed towards producing natural killer cells in the laboratory to ultimately be used in a new anti-cancer treatment.
Body: Scientists have found that certain self-renewing stem cells have built-in tracers -- made out of sugars -- that can do the job without added chemical 'labels' when injected into mouse brains. The finding, made with stem cells widely engineered into experimental therapies for multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases, was a welcome surprise, the investigators say.
Body: A combined treatment strategy targeting SARS-CoV-2 symptoms and severe lung tissue injury is essential to minimize lung sequelae -- chronic complications resulting from COVID-19 infection, according to a new review article.