During brain development, astrocytogenesis is initiated by DNA demethylation of astrocytic genes such as Gfap. However, it is not completely known how DNA demethylation in the astrocytic genes is achieved. In another aspect, VC level is high in the developing brain and doubles during mid/late‐gestation of brain development when astrocytogenesis occurs. In this study, we identified a VC effect to promote astrocyte differentiation along with activated astrocyte‐specific gene transcription by regulating DNA hydroxymethylation. Our finding of VC effects would be physiologically relevant and suggests that VC‐mediated DNA hydroxymethylation is another additional mechanism for astrocytogenesis during brain development.
The potential of autologous mesenchymal stromal cell‐based therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological diseases is currently being explored in clinical trials although the effects of disease on mesenchymal stromal cell phenotype and function have not been extensively examined. We have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from patients with progressive MS have increased susceptibility to nitrosative stress and reduced expression, activity, and secretion of key antioxidants. Our findings have important implications for the development of autologous mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for MS but also for other conditions in which mesenchymal stromal cell function has not been fully characterized. In addition, the potential contribution of mesenchymal stromal cell dysfunction to the pathophysiology of progressive MS and/or its comorbidities should be explored further.
The differentiation of urine-derived stem cells may represent as a simple and low-cost method to produce endothelial cells for therapeutic purposes