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Brief reviews of recently published articles, organized by stem cell type.

January 21, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Regulation of Pluripotency and Cellular Reprogramming by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System"

The regulation of pluripotency has been assessed on many different levels; transcription factor networks, epigenetic regulation and miRNA analysis. However, the role of posttranslational modifications in embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and differentiation has not been fully...

January 21, 2013 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

"Towards germline gene therapy of inherited mitochondrial diseases"

Human disease caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is thought to affect between 1000 and 4000 children born in the US every year (Haas et al. and Schaefer et al.) although some estimates have this at a much higher level (Elliott et al.). While there are no cures for mitochondrial disorders...

December 10, 2012 | Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

“Injury-Activated Transforming Growth Factor β Controls Mobilization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Tissue Remodeling”

Adult stem/progenitor cells are able to differentiate into many cell types and can also be recruited to a site of injury where they either repair the injured tissue or contribute to tissue...

December 10, 2012 | Haploid Stem Cells

Recent successes in establishing haploid embryonic stem cells in mice (Elling et al and Leeb and Wutz) have raised the possibility of using these cells in genetic studies by producing models of recessive traits, while also...

December 10, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Recent studies have begun to describe means of directing the differentiation of male and female germ cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) towards sperm and oocytes. The group of Mitinori Saitou at Kyoto University, Japan have previously described the production of primordial germ cell–like cells (PGCLCs) from male mouse ESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with which allow for...

December 10, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

While the overexpression of specific transcription factors in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can allowed the production of specific cell types such as haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, adipocytes and neural progenitors, our ability to form functional artificial organs from these cells is still limited (Eiraku et al, Eiraku and Sasai, and Suga et al). Now, in a study...

December 10, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS

“Cellular Heterogeneity During Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation to Epiblast Stem Cells Is Revealed by the ShcD/RaLP Adaptor Protein”

The Shc (Src homolog and collagen homolog) family of adaptor proteins is a crucial linker of a wide range of receptors to their downstream...

November 15, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

Original article from STEM CELLS Translational Medicine

“Apoptotic Susceptibility to DNA Damage of Pluripotent Stem Cells Facilitates Pharmacologic Purging of Teratoma Risk”

The potential for dysregulated cell growth and teratoma formation after the transplantation of embryonic stem cell (ESC)- or induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-...

November 6, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

“Early-stage epigenetic modification during somatic cell reprogramming by Parp1 and Tet2”

The inner mechanics of the processes which take place during the reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are gradually being delineated. One of the most important aspects of the reprogramming process is erasure of the somatic epigenetic pattern and the establishment...

November 6, 2012 | Pluripotent Stem Cells

“Direct Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells into Haploid Spermatogenic Cells”

For adult and prepubescent patients who have been rendered sterile, no treatments to restore fertility are currently available. Multiple studies have however shown the ability of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to be differentiated to primordial germ cells (PGCs), precursors of the spermatogenic...

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