The Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Society recently provided a Perspective article in
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Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from
Inflammatory macrophages can promote the expansion of activated muscle stem cells during tissue repair by retaining cells in a proliferative and undifferentiated state.
A new article from researchers led by Gerlinde R.
Kidney dysplasia has been associated with the failure of kidney progenitor cells during development, and, recently, progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms to this phenomenon.
Culturing cells from prostate cancer biopsies to study mechanisms of disease and discover novel treatments suffers from many difficulties; however, a new study from the laboratory of Rakesh Heer
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common inherited kidney disease, leads to kidney failure in most patients. While mutations in the Polycystin 1 (PKD1) gene cause 85% of cases, we do not fully understand how dysregulation of PKD1 leads to cyst formation on a molecular level.
A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from Prabhash Dadhich and Khalil N. Bitar (Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston‐Salem, NC, USA) describes the development of patient-derived interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) as cellular therapy following injection into the pylorus. The team developed a functional ex vivo diseased models of the pylorus and studied ICC/NPC delivery as a treatment for neuromuscular dysfunctionality and confirmed reinstatement and restoration of functionality through detailed quantitative and qualitative analyses. Overall, the authors suggest that the current preliminary study with the ex vivo disease model will prompt the development of next-generation cell therapy for the treatment of gastroparesis.
Inflammatory macrophages can promote the expansion of activated muscle stem cells during tissue repair by retaining cells in a proliferative and undifferentiated state. Now, a new article from the laboratories of Changshun Shao and Yufang Shi (Soochow University, Jiangsu, China) reveals that muscle stem cells also endow maturing macrophages with anti‐inflammatory properties through the production of insulin‐like growth factor‐2 that dictates the metabolic preference of macrophages. For more on how this study relates to diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
A new article from researchers led by Gerlinde R. Van de Walle (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA) recently described, for the first time, how the administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may represent an effective against means to counteract the activity of bacteria in biofilms, including the antibiotic‐resistant methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus, via the secretion of active proteases that destabilize biofilms by protein degradation and the associated increased effectiveness of antibiotics. In light of the rise of antibiotic‐resistant bacterial strains as an increasing global health threat, Marx et al. hope that their results will provide the rationale for the implementation of the MSC secretome as a complementary treatment for bacterial infections. For more, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
Kidney dysplasia has been associated with the failure of kidney progenitor cells during development, and, recently, progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms to this phenomenon. Now, a new Perspective from a team led by Zhongwei Li and Biao Huang (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA) summarizes this progress and offers new insights into the potential application of novel technical tools to advance this field. Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for a fantastic read!
Culturing cells from prostate cancer biopsies to study mechanisms of disease and discover novel treatments suffers from many difficulties; however, a new study from the laboratory of Rakesh Heer (Freeman Hospital, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) has established a new means to grow “mini 3D prostates” in the laboratory. Hepburn et al. provide proof of concept for genetic modifications in this innovative model, which lays the foundations for new preclinical approaches to personalized care that were previously considered a challenging prospect. The team hopes next to develop genetically engineered prostate cancers in a dish that are tailored to the specific genetic profiles of individual patients and determine their responses to a range of drug treatments. For all the exciting details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!
Researchers from the lab of Ton J. Rabelink (Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands) recently sought to explore the maturity of endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-ECs) by investigating their ability to express von Willebrand factor (VWF) and formation of Weibel‐Palade bodies (WPBs). Overall, Tiemeier et al. found that metabolic immaturity hampered proper hiPSC-EC function, and the formation of VWF and WPBs required the lowering of the intracellular pH of hiPSC-ECs. For more information on this fascinating new study, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common inherited kidney disease, leads to kidney failure in most patients. While mutations in the Polycystin 1 (PKD1) gene cause 85% of cases, we do not fully understand how dysregulation of PKD1 leads to cyst formation on a molecular level. Now, a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study from Joost H. Gribnau (Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Netherlands) reports on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from ADPKD patients to study the function of PKD1 in kidney development and cyst formation in vitro. Kenter et al. report that the iPSCs display the germline and autosomal mutations implicated in ADPKD and an epigenetic memory of kidney epithelial cells and therefore represent a powerful model to study ADPKD in vitro.
The four transcription factors that make up the Yamanaka “cocktail” (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and Myc, or OSKM) are well known for their capacity to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Now, Huafeng Xie and Thomas Graf discuss a recent paper from Wang et al. in Nature Communications that describes the unexpected discovery that short‐term activation of OSKM expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells in vivo induces apoptosis while negligibly affecting normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Head over to STEM CELLS to discover the potential implications of these findings for novel anti‐cancer strategies.
A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from the labs of Aijun Wang and Ping Zhou (University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA) demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from hemophilia A patients can provide an ample supply of endothelial cells that can be genetically modified to produce functional factor VIII. Rose et al. describe how the stable engraftment of endothelial cells in neonatal and adult animals and the functional correction or alleviation of hemophilia A by these endothelial cells in animal models provide the basis for potential therapeutic development of corrected‐iPSC‐derived endothelial cells for the treatment of hemophilia A.
The impact of extracellular matrix mechanical cues and mechanotransduction signaling on inner ear progenitor cell (IEPCs) fate remains relatively undescribed; however, researchers led by Wenyan Li and Huawei Li (Fudan University, Shanghai, China) now provide the first demonstration that Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)‐mediated actin cytoskeletal contractility plays a critical role in regulating the response of IEPCs to microenvironmental mechanical cues through their application of suspension and encapsulated culture systems. More specifically, this new STEM CELLS article from Xia et al. characterized Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) as a mediator of mechanotransduction signaling in the expansion of IEPCs, partly through regulating b-catenin activity.