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Highlights of current exciting developments, ranging from research papers to court decisions to industry regulations

September 17, 2018

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Past Buzz

September 9,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - EPC Migration and Angiogenesis, Airway Stem Cell Differentiation, iPSC Blood-Brain Barrier Model, and GBM Stemness and Chemosensitivity!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

LncRNA Promotes Endothelial Progenitor Cell Migration and Angiogenesis

Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) recruitment and angiogenesis represent essential steps in the production of a thrombus intended to inhibit bleeding; however, what regulates these processes remains relatively unknown. Now, research from the labs of Xiao‐Qiang Li (Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu) and Wen‐Bin Wang (The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China) suggests that the WTAPP1 long noncoding (lnc)RNA positively regulates migration, invasion, and in vitro and in vivo tube formation in EPCs by increasing MMP‐1 expression and activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. See STEM CELLS for all the details.

Airway Stem Cell Differentiation

Previous studies from the laboratory of Susan D. Reynolds (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA) demonstrated that genetic stabilization of β‐catenin inhibited differentiation of mouse bronchiolar tissue stem cells. Now, in a new STEM CELLS study, Malleske et al. report that activation of β‐catenin dependent signaling in chronic lung disease leads to changes in mucus and ciliated cell frequency and that β‐catenin co‐factors P300 and CBP tune the β‐catenin signal to favor mucus cell differentiation. Sounds like a great read!

Human iPSC-derived Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Human cell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may aid our understanding of BBB formation and degradation and the consequences of brain exposure to various drugs. To this end, researchers in the lab of Louise Delsing (University of Skövde, Sweden) employed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate a human model of the BBB that includes endothelial cells in co‐culture with pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. Overall, this new STEM CELLS study suggests that co‐culture of iPSC‐derived endothelial cells promotes barrier formation on a functional and transcriptional level.

BRG1 Regulates Glioblastoma Multiforme Stemness and Chemosensitivity

Therapies that target cancer stem cells (CSCs) present in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a highly aggressive and malignant brain tumor refractory to existing therapeutic regimens, may represent an exciting therapeutic strategy. New research from the lab of Lawrence M. Pfeffer (University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA) now identifies the BRG1 catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex as a critical regulator of glial CSC stemness and chemosensitivity and a potentially druggable target. For more, head over to STEM CELLS post-haste!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 6,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Better Transplants, EPC-treatment for Stroke, Marking Quiescent LSCs, and TLR-microRNA Interplay in MSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Cheating Death for a Better Transplant

An intriguingly titled article from the lab of Miriam Erlacher (University Medical Center of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) discusses the circumstances that limit the success of transplantation as well as potential clinical approaches to attenuate donor stem cell death during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Specifically, Afreen et al. discuss the role of anti-apoptotic BCL‐2 proteins in the context of factors that negatively affect donor hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fitness and viability during HSCT and suggest approaches to improve graft quality and transplantation procedures with an emphasis on the inhibition of BCL‐2 regulated apoptosis. See STEM CELLS now for a fascinating read!

Endothelial Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Acute Ischemic Stroke

While the transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) represents a safe and effective method for the treatment of cerebral ischemia in animal experiments, safety and efficacy in human patients still need to be determined. To this end, a two‐center, randomized, placebo‐controlled phase I/IIa trial with blinded outcome assessment on 18 patients with acute cerebral infarct within the middle cerebral artery territory with a four year follow up has now been reported in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. This new study, led by Zhenzhou Chen and Xiaodan Jiang (Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, PR China), establish long‐term safety, thereby supporting the feasibility of this novel method for treatment of ischemic stroke.

CD200: a Putative Marker of Quiescent LSCs

One of the main challenges in limbal stem cell (LSC) biology and transplantation is the lack of definitive cell surface markers; however, a new study led by Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) now proposes CD200 as a novel LSC marker. Bojic et al. report that CD200 expression marks a quiescent population of LSCs with holoclone forming potential while CD109 expression marks a proliferative progenitor phenotype. The authors anticipate that these new findings, reported in STEM CELLS, will aid further advances in this field.

Toll‐like receptor-microRNA Interplay in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Finally, researchers from the lab of Armand Keating (University Health Network, Toronto, Canada) review how an miRNA‐Toll‐like receptor (TLR) pathway axis regulates the immunomodulatory functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), including their interactions with monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells, and discuss the therapeutic implications for MSC‐based therapies. For all the details on a fascinating review article, head over to STEM CELLS right now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

September 3,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSCs for Intraventricular Hemorrhage, MSC Migration to Injured Lung, NSC-mediated Cancer Therapies, and iPSC Reprogramming Efficiency!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Neonatal Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Previous studies from the lab of Won Soon Park (Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) discovered that transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improved recovery from brain injury induced by severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in newborn rats. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, Ahn et al. now reports that intraventricular transplantation of allogeneic human umbilical cord‐derived MSCs into preterm human infant patients with severe IVH represents a safe and feasible approach. The authors hope that the positive results of this encouraging phase I dose‐escalation clinical trial will lead to a more extensive, and controlled, phase II study.

AT2R Overexpression Increases MSC Migration to the Injured Lung

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based treatment of patients suffering from acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represents an exciting therapeutic approach but suffers from a lack of MSC migration to the injured lung. Now, researchers led by Hai‐Bo Qiu (Southeast University, Nanjing, PR China) have established that the overexpression of the Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) increases MSC migration to the injured lung in ALI mice and could boost the therapeutic effect of administered MSCs. For all the details, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

 

Neural Stem Cell-mediated Cancer Therapies: A Review

A new article from the laboratory of Karen S. Aboody (Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA) provides a timely review of the tumor tropism characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs) and their application as therapeutic vehicles in cancer therapy. Furthermore, Mooney et al. detail novel therapeutic strategies and the probable future direction of stem cell‐mediated cancer therapy. Strategies such as this hope to promote tumor specificity and efficacy of anti-cancer approaches while preventing undesirable side effects; see all the fine print over at STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Factors Influencing iPSC Reprogramming Efficiency

A new study from the lab of Trevor K. Archer (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NC, USA) sought to examine the influence of various parameters on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) reprogramming via the creation of a massive sex- and ancestry-balanced cohort of primary dermal fibroblast and derived-iPSCs. Reporting in STEM CELLS, Mackey et al. demonstrate that components of the SWI/SNF family of epigenetic enzymes, donor age, and donor ancestry all correlated with the proficient generation of iPSCs. Furthermore, the authors anticipate that their cohort of iPSCs from eighty healthy human donors will allow for the creation of sophisticated cell-based models for the mechanism of action studies, pharmaceutical development, and toxicity assessments.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 22,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - NPCs for Spinal Cord Injury, Amniotic Fluid Stem Cell-based Therapy, Leukemia Stem Cell Candidate Marker, and a Stem Cell Trial for Rheumatoid Arthritis!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Oligodendrogenic NPCs for Spinal Cord Injury

To boost the production of mature oligodendrocytes for spinal cord injury treatment, researchers from the lab of Michael G. Fehlings (University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada) recently described the production of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (oNPCs) from directly reprogrammed human NPCs (drNPCs). Nagoshi et al. demonstrate how oNPC transplantation promoted peri-lesional tissue sparing and axonal remyelination, resulting in motor function recovery in model mice. Furthermore, this exciting study observed no evidence of tumor formation; head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the details.

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells for Treatment of the Fetus and Neonate

A new Perspective article from Shaun M. Kunisaki (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) provides a pediatric surgeon-scientists perspective on the therapeutic potential of amniotic fluid‐derived stem cells in the management of a wide range of structural birth defects affecting the fetus and neonate. In STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, the author discusses the characteristics of amniotic fluid‐derived stem cells in experimental animal models of congenital anomalies and reviews barriers to the clinical translation of amniotic fluid stem cells as a potential adjunct to surgical treatment in children.

c-MPL is a Candidate Surface Marker of Leukemia Stem Cells

New research from the labs of Qing Rao and Jianxiang Wang (Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences/Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, P. R. China) suggests that c‐MPL is a candidate leukemia stem cells (LSC) surface marker that may represent a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs. Li et al. report that c‐MPL‐positive cells included a high percentage of cells in a quiescent state with enhanced colony formation ability, increased homing efficiency, and higher leukemia initiation capability. See STEM CELLS now to see how c‐MPL may serve as a therapeutic target for the elimination of LSCs.

Stem Cell Infusion for Rheumatoid Arthritis

A new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine report brings us the results of a phase I trial of human umbilical cord blood‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB‐MSCs) for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) led by Kichul Shin (SMG‐SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea). Park et al. establish that a single fusion of hUCB‐MSCs reduced the mean 28‐joint disease activity score of the study participants without any deleterious side effects in the short term. The authors hope that data from this trial will provide insight for future trials assessing safety plus clinical efficacy.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 13,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - CLI Cell Therapy, UCB Clinical Trial, Treating Infant Lung Disease, and MSC Spheroid Chondrogenesis!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Cell Therapy in Chronic Limb Ischemia

Severe forms of peripheral arterial disease can lead to critical limb ischemia (CLI) and subsequent limb amputation due to the lack of effective treatment options. A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from the lab of Marianne C. Verhaar (University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands) aims to provide a concise review on the available evidence on and future directions of cell therapy in CLI. Initial pre‐clinical and small pilot clinical studies revealed promising effects of cell therapy in peripheral artery disease and chronic limb‐threatening ischemia in particular; however, these promising results were not corroborated in larger high quality blinded randomized trials and have led to the development of more sophisticated and more effective treatment options.

EEG Biomarkers in Umbilical Cord Blood Clinical Trial

A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine report brings us the results of a phase I, single‐center, and open‐label trial of a single intravenous infusion of autologous umbilical cord blood in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) led by Geraldine Dawson (Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, USA). Safety results and clinical outcomes measured at 6 and 12 months post‐infusion were previously published, and their new study explored if measures of electroencephalography (EEG) theta, alpha, and beta power changed after treatment and if baseline EEG characteristics were predictive of clinical improvement. Excitingly, Murias et al. demonstrate that EEG measures may represent useful endpoints for future ASD clinical trials.

Cell Therapy for Babies with Chronic Lung Disease

A new study led by Euan M. Wallace (Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia) hoped to discover whether stem‐like cells derived from placental membranes (human amnion epithelial cells [hAECs]) represent an exciting treatment option for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease that mainly affects premature babies. Reporting in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, Lim et al. establish the safety of allogeneic hAEC injection in babies with established BPD. The team hopes that their favorable results will permit future randomized clinical trials to assess efficacy and pave the way for cell therapy as a means to prevent and treat a variety of diseases that claim the lives of prematurely born babies.

MSC Spheroid Morphology Predicts Chondrogenesis

Improved methods to assess mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic capacity may lead to improved bone and cartilage tissue repair strategies. Now, new research from the lab of Kyung E. Sung (Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA) now establishes that monitoring emergent morphological phenotypes of chondrogenically induced MSC aggregates to identify morphological features indicative of MSC chondrogenesis may represent an exciting means to identify MSC lines with desired chondrogenic capacity. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now to see how this new tool may improve manufacturing strategies for MSC‐based cellular products for cartilage tissue repair.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 10,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - P2X7 and Adult Neurogenesis, Perivascular Stem Cell Precursors, Cellular Therapeutics and Clot Formation, and MSC-Based Drug Delivery Review!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Functional roles of P2X7 during adult neurogenesis

New research from the labs of Michael W Weible II (Griffith University, Nathan, Australia) and Ben J. Gu (University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia) sought to uncover possible roles of the multifunctional P2X7 receptors in adult neurogenesis. Via the analysis of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from adult murine hippocampal subgranular (SGZ) and cerebral subventricular (SVZ) zones, Leeson et al. report that P2X7 receptors can form transmembrane pores leading to cell death, regulate rates of proliferation via calcium signaling, and function as scavenger receptors in the absence of ATP, allowing NPCs to phagocytose apoptotic NPCs during neurogenesis. See STEM CELLS now for more details.

Perivascular Stem Cell Precursors

While pericytes act as precursors of resident adult stem cells in stromal tissues in vivo, pericytes expanded in vitro display a more extensive multi‐lineage differentiation potential. Val Yianni and Paul T Sharpe (Kings College London, London, UK) sought to discover why this occurs in a recent STEM CELLS study. Overall, their fascinating transcriptomic and epigenomic study suggests that pericyte populations derived from mouse incisors and bone marrow are molecularly obstructed from differentiating down specific lineages in vivo.

Cellular Therapeutics Accelerate Clot Formation

for all the fine print.

Reviewing Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Drug Delivery

The clinical potential for mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs)‐based therapies and synthetic biology approaches, in general, continues to build, with more and more of said approaches undergoing evaluation in the clinic. However, a new review from the lab of W. Nathaniel Brennen (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA) hopes to serve as a “sobering reminder” that MSCs display broad biodistribution and poor homing efficiency to most target tissues observed employing current methodologies. Therefore, Krueger et al. suggest that enhanced targeting strategies to potentiate efficient and effective clinical translation of these strategies are much required! To read more on this fascinating area, click your way to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 6,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSCs in Multiple Sclerosis, Unproven Stem Cell Interventions, ASCs in Endotoxemia, and Collagen-mediated Immune Dysfunction!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Antioxidant Responses in Multiple Sclerosis

A previous study from the lab of Claire M. Rice (University of Bristol, United Kingdom) highlighted the reduced neuroprotective potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Now, Redondo et al. demonstrate that MS-MSCs display increased susceptibility to nitrosative stress and reduced expression, activity, and secretion of critical antioxidants. The authors hope that returning the dysregulated antioxidant responses to those displayed by healthy MSCs may return the lost neuroprotective potential; see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine to discover more.

The Use of Unproven Stem Cell Interventions

A new review article from the lab of Mohamed Abou‐El‐Enein (BCRT, Berlin, Germany) recently set out to compile scientific publications, clinical case reports, and mass media publications to assess reported cases and safety incidents associated with unproven stem cell interventions (SCI). Bauer et al. hope that their efforts will help to shed new light on the magnitude and pervasiveness of such critical situations, which may pose a serious risk to vulnerable patient populations and also dilute the value of ethical and legitimate therapies currently being developed for patients through rigorous preclinical and clinical testing. For a fascinating insight into this area, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Adipose-derived Stem Cells in Human Endotoxemia

To explore the application of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in the treatment of sepsis, researchers led by Desirée Perlee (Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) assessed responses of healthy patients to ASC infusions following injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This new study established the tolerability of ASC infusion and demonstrated time-dependent proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects and mild procoagulant features in the high-dose cohort. For all the details, see STEM CELLS now!

Collagen-mediated Immune Dysfunction

To study the impact of the trabecular extracellular matrix (ECM) of the bone marrow on hematopoiesis, researchers from the lab of Bent Brachvogel (University of Cologne, Germany) assessed the consequences of collagen IX alpha1 knockout in model mice. Probst et al. discovered that the loss of collagen IX alpha1 destabilized the trabecular bone network, impaired myeloid cell differentiation, and affected the innate immune response when challenged with Listeria moncytogenes. See STEM CELLS now for all the fine print.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

August 3,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Urine-derived Endothelial Cells, Micro-Fragmented Adipose Tissue, CD34+ Cell Transplantation for CLI, and Small Molecule-Mediated Stem Cell Differentiation!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Functional Endothelial Cells Induced from Urine-derived Stem Cells

As a means to generate sufficient numbers of autologous endothelial cells (ECs), researchers from the lab of Yuanyuan Zhang (Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston‐Salem, NC, USA) recently assessed the differentiation potential of urine-derived stem cells (USCs) that originate from the kidney glomeruli. Reporting in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, Liu et al. reveal that the directed differentiation of USCs permits the generation of cells (USC-ECs) with endothelial morphology, ultrastructure, and functional marker expression that display endothelial-like function during in vitro analysis and expressed high levels of endothelial markers following grafting in vivo. The authors propose USC-ECs as a low-cost and easy-to-obtain source of autologous cells for applications in tissue-engineered vascular regeneration or the repair of endothelial dysfunction.

Micro-Fragmented Adipose Tissue in Dogs with Osteoarthritis

A recent study led by Offer Zeira (San Michele Veterinary Hospital, Tavazzano con Villavesco, Italy) sought to assess the potential for single intra‐articular injection of autologous and micro‐fragmented adipose tissue (MFAT) as a treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) in a dog model. Their findings, reported in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, establish that this time sparing, cost‐effective, minimally invasive, and one‐step procedure provides long-lasting successful results without any noted complications. The authors now hope to propel this exciting new treatment option to trials in human patients.

CD34+ Cell Transplantation for Hemodialysis Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia

As a means to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), researchers from the lab of Takayasu Ohtake (Shonan Kamakura General Hospital, Okamoto, Kamakura, Japan) recently conducted a phase II clinical trial of granulocyte colony‐stimulating factor (G‐CSF)‐mobilized peripheral blood‐derived autologous purified CD34 positive (CD34+) cell transplantation in a small number of patients. Wow, that’s a mouthful!  Encouragingly, this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study established the highly effective nature of this approach and highlighted the lack of major adverse events. Great news!

Small Molecule-Induced Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation

Finally, researchers from the labs of Christina L. L. Chai (National University of Singapore) and Steve K. W. Oh (A*STAR, Singapore) report on their search for novel small molecules (novel synthetic tri‐substituted imidazoles (TIs)) that promote cardiac differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Zhong et al. report that several TIs promoted differentiation, but functioned via ALK5 of the TGFβ pathway rather than the expected Wnt/β‐catenin pathway. Overall, this STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study establishes a new means to promote both cardiac and neural differentiation from hPSCs.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

July 23,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Astrocytic Gene Hydroxymethylation, Facilitating Cells, Megakaryocyte-induced Myeloproliferation, and a Regenerative Medicine Roadmap!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

DNA Hydroxymethylation of Astrocytic Genes in Neural Stem Cells

Following studies that indicated that vitamin C promotes DNA hydroxymethylation and transcription of dopamine neuron‐specific genes and the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into dopamine neurons, researchers from the labs of Sang‐Hun Lee (Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea) and Seon‐Young Kim (KRIBB, Daejeon, South Korea) set out to discover more. Kim et al. now describe how vitamin C promotes the DNA hydroxymethylation and transcription of astrocyte‐specific genes and astrocyte differentiation and so may be essential to astrocytogenesis during brain development. See STEM CELLS now for more details.

The Role of Flt3-ligand in the p‐preDC FC Subpopulation

Facilitating cells (FC), which resemble plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells (p‐preDC), enhance engraftment of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and induce antigen‐specific regulatory T cells (Treg) in vivo. The lab of Suzanne T. Ildstad (University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA) now reports the Flt3‐ligand as a critical growth factor in the development and homeostasis of p‐preDC FC and the generation of Treg. Huang et al. suggest that the Flt3‐ligand provides potent immunoregulatory properties that may be clinically useful to improve tolerance induction and enhance the function of allogeneic cell therapies. Head over to STEM CELLS now for a deeper dive into this new study.

Mutation-carrying Megakaryocyte-induced Myeloproliferation

Researchers from the lab of Huichun Zhan (Stony Brook School of Medicine, NY, USA) recently sought to discover how the acquired kinase mutation JAK2V617F promotes hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion and overproduction of mature blood cells in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Zhang et al. now report that JAK2V617F‐bearing megakaryocytes induce HSPC quiescence with increased repopulating capacity via thrombopoietin and its receptor MPL. The authors suggest that targeting HSPC niche‐forming megakaryocytes and their interactions within the vascular niche could provide a novel and effective therapeutic strategy in patients with MPNs. See STEM CELLS now for more!

Roadmap for Manufacturing in Regenerative Medicine

A new Perspective article from Joshua G. Hunsberger, Thomas Shupe, and Anthony Atala (Wake Forest University, Winston‐Salem, NC, USA) in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine details on the achievement of a “roadmap” to provide the access for those in need to regenerative medicine therapies, both within the United States and around the World. The authors hope that technical advancements in the seven clinical manufacturing impact areas will accelerate clinical translation of regenerative medicine‐based therapies, and facilitate the scale‐up in clinical manufacturing capacity required for deployment of these therapies to the vast number of patients that would benefit from them.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

July 20,2018 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – The Adaptive Mesenchymal Niche, iPSC-derived Retinal Organoids, Blind Mole Rat ASCs, and Splicing in Myeloid Malignancies!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Distinct Effects of Adaptive Mesenchymal Niches

Employing a 5‐fluorouracil-induced niche stimulation model, researchers led by Il‐Hoan Oh (Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea) set out to characterize the dynamic adaptation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche cells to changes in physiological stimulatory signals. Jeong et al. describe how stimulation induces the rapid non-mitotic conversion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into primitive niche-like cells employed to initiate HSC regeneration. Furthermore, this adaptive niche remodeling exerts a pro-normal/anti-leukemic effect to counteract self-reinforcing pro-leukemic changes. For more information, head over to STEM CELLS now!

Generating Light Responsive Retinal Organoids from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

The ability to create functional and light‐responsive retinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a significant hurdle to the generation of in vitro models of the human retina. However, researchers from the lab of Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK) recently demonstrated the production of light-responsive iPSC‐derived retinal organoids in a process dependent on seeding cell density and nutrient availability. Additionally, the adaptation of this protocol to a multiwell plate format permitted the production of organoids containing retinal-pigmented epithelium and improved ganglion cell development and response to physiological stimuli. See STEM CELLS now for all the fine print.

Reduced Motility of Blind Mole Rat Adipose Stem Cells Counteract Cancer

A fascinating new study from Irena Manov (University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel) has recently suggested that altered adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) motility may be behind differential cancer rates in blind mole rats (Spalax) and rats (Rattus). Mamchur et al. suggest that the lower motility rate of Spalax ASCs inhibits their migration towards tumor cells to support tumorigenic support development, angiogenesis, and tumor growth as occurs with Rattus ASCs. The authors of this new STEM CELLS study hope that their findings may lead to the development of a new cancer‐preventive strategy in humans.

Splicing Gene Mutations in Myeloid Malignancies

The high incidence of mutations in splicing factors in early hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) of patients with myeloid malignancies prompted researchers from the lab of Shalini Sharma (University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA) to investigate mechanisms of transformation. Now, Bapat et al. report in STEM CELLS that mutations in the SRSF2 and U2AF1 lead to cell context‐specific effects and that the generation of myeloid disease phenotype by mutations in the genes coding these two proteins likely involves different intracellular mechanisms.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!