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Recently Published

Summaries of the most recent articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

May 20, 2019

Free tendon allografts exhibit generally provide poor outcomes when employed as a material for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Researchers led by Zhenhan Deng (Shenzhen University, Shenzhen) and Jinzhong Zhao (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China) have shown that bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with a decellularized free tendon allograft is effective in improving ACL reconstruction results.

May 20, 2019

A study from researchers at the lab of Peter M. Jones (King's College London, UK) recently assessed the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on pancreatic islets by investigating the importance of tissue source, coculture protocol configuration and length, the activated/inactivated status of MSCs, and different β‐cell secretory stimuli. 

May 20, 2019

Researchers led by Sydney C.W. Tang (The University of Hong Kong, China) recently sought to discover if and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can treat lipotoxicity‐induced kidney injury.

May 20, 2019

A recent review article in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine from Chulhee Choi and Hai‐Chon Lee (ILIAS Biologics Inc., Daejeon, Korea) sought to summarize the potential mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cell‐derived extracellular vesicle (MSC-EV) therapy as a drug delivery platform. 

May 13, 2019

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

 

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May 9, 2019

Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Pneumosepsis

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory capabilities, and for this reason, researchers from the laboratory of Desirée Perlee (University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) recently sought to assess the effect of adipose‐derived MSC therapy on pneumosepsis in mice. In their recentSTEM CELLS Translational Medicine article, the authors established that human adipose-derived MSCs induced profound immune modulatory effects in the lungs, resulting in reduced bacterial burdens and lung inflammation, suggesting that MSCs may represent an adjunctive therapy in sepsis.

 

Complete Buzz

 

 

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May 6, 2019

Activation‐induced Cytidine Deaminase Required for Naïve Pluripotency

Previous studies from the laboratories of Ritu Kumar and Todd Evans (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, USA) demonstrated that activation‐induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) facilitated the stabilization of pluripotency during reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Now, the team returns with a STEM CELLS study in which they report that Acida−/− iPSCs fail to reach the naïve pluripotent state and remain primed for differentiation due to a failure to suppress FGF/ERK signaling. However, the authors also demonstrate that while mutant cells display marked genomic hypermethylation, the suppression of FGF/ERK signaling by AICDA did not depend on deaminase activity.

 

 

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Past Buzz

May 20,2019 Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Islet β-cell Function

A study from researchers at the lab of Peter M. Jones (King's College London, UK) recently assessed the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on pancreatic islets by investigating the importance of tissue source, coculture protocol configuration and length, the activated/inactivated status of MSCs, and different β‐cell secretory stimuli. Arzouni et al. discovered that 48 hours of preculture with inactivated adipose tissue-derived MSCs in a direct contact co-culture configuration optimally supported β‐cell insulin secretion from islets, thereby supporting this approach as an effective addition to human islet transplantation protocols. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the details.

 

 

May 20,2019 Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Kidneys from Lipotoxicity

Researchers led by Sydney C.W. Tang (The University of Hong Kong, China) recently sought to discover if and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can treat lipotoxicity‐induced kidney injury. Interestingly, Li et al. now report that MSCs ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in palmitic acid‐treated renal tubular cells and high-fat-diet-induced obese kidney in mice via activation of hepatocyte growth factor/c‐Met paracrine signaling in the obese kidney microenvironment. Furthermore, this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article suggests that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived MSCs may represent a valuable alternative source to bone marrow-derived MSCs for therapeutic application in chronic kidney disease.

 

May 20,2019 Extracellular Vesicles as a Drug Delivery Platform

A recent review article in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine from Chulhee Choi and Hai‐Chon Lee (ILIAS Biologics Inc., Daejeon, Korea) sought to summarize the potential mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cell‐derived extracellular vesicle (MSC-EV) therapy as a drug delivery platform. Furthermore, Baek et al. predict a potential therapeutic role of cargo proteins shuttled by EVs from MSCs based on currently published data.

May 20,2019 EV-based Drug Delivery, Kidney Lipotoxicity, Improving Islet β-cell Function, and ACL Reconstruction!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you an update of the new articles published in STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine!

Extracellular Vesicles as a Drug Delivery Platform

A recent review article in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine from Chulhee Choi and Hai‐Chon Lee (ILIAS Biologics Inc., Daejeon, Korea) sought to summarize the potential mechanisms underlying mesenchymal stem cell‐derived extracellular vesicle (MSC-EV) therapy as a drug delivery platform. Furthermore, Baek et al. predict a potential therapeutic role of cargo proteins shuttled by EVs from MSCs based on currently published data.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Protect Kidneys from Lipotoxic

Researchers led by Sydney C.W. Tang (The University of Hong Kong, China) recently sought to discover if and how mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can treat lipotoxicity‐induced kidney injury. Interestingly, Li et al. now report that MSCs ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in palmitic acid‐treated renal tubular cells and high-fat-diet-induced obese kidney in mice via activation of hepatocyte growth factor/c‐Met paracrine signaling in the obese kidney microenvironment. Furthermore, this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article suggests that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived MSCs may represent a valuable alternative source to bone marrow-derived MSCs for therapeutic application in chronic kidney disease.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improve Islet β-cell Function

A study from researchers at the lab of Peter M. Jones (King's College London, UK) recently assessed the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on pancreatic islets by investigating the importance of tissue source, coculture protocol configuration and length, the activated/inactivated status of MSCs, and different β‐cell secretory stimuli. Arzouni et al. discovered that 48 hours of preculture with inactivated adipose tissue-derived MSCs in a direct contact co-culture configuration optimally supported β‐cell insulin secretion from islets, thereby supporting this approach as an effective addition to human islet transplantation protocols. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the details.

Allogenic Tendon and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Free tendon allografts exhibit generally provide poor outcomes when employed as a material for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Researchers led by Zhenhan Deng (Shenzhen University, Shenzhen) and Jinzhong Zhao (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China) have shown that bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) combined with a decellularized free tendon allograft is effective in improving ACL reconstruction results. The team now return with a STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study that provides evidence for the efficacy and feasibility of decellularized allogenic semitendinous tendon combined with autologous MSCs as a substitute to free tendon allograft in a rabbit model.

May 13,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Retinal Ganglion Cell Repair, Human Platelet Lysate, Female Germline Stem Cells, and Metabolic Reprogramming of iPSCs!

Retinal Ganglion Cell Repair by iPSC-Derived Müller Glia

The transplantation of Müller glial cells may represent a beneficial treatment for glaucoma, one of the leading causes of blindness. In an encouraging advance, researchers led by Karen Eastlake and G. Astrid Limb (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK) recently described the isolation of Müller glia from retinal organoids formed by human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in a STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article. The team demonstrated how these cells partially restored visual function in rats depleted of retinal ganglion cells and may, therefore, represent an attractive means to prevent and treat vision loss caused by degenerative retinal conditions.

Human Platelet Lysate-based Expansion Improves Bone Forming Potential

The replacement of fetal bovine serum (FBS) with human platelet lysate (HPL) in growth media preparations may improve the clinical applicability of several types of stem cells. To explore the in vivo therapeutic and regenerative potential of HPL, researchers from the laboratory of Ioannis Papantoniou (KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium) compared FBS and HPL for the scalable, microcarrier‐based dynamic expansion of human periosteum‐derived stem cells (hPDCs) and assessed bone forming capacity by subcutaneous implantation in a small animal model. Excitingly, Gupta et al. now report that HPL supplementation prompted a higher degree of bone formation following the implantation of hPDCs and calcium phosphate carriers in small animal models thanks to the activation of WNT and BMP pathways. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

AKT3 Drives the Self-renewal of Female Germline Stem Cells

A recent study out of the Kang Zou lab (Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China) established that Cadherin‐22 (CDH22) regulates the self‐renewal of mouse female germline stem cells (FGSCs) via an interaction with the JAK-STAT signal pathway and β‐catenin. Now, the team returns with their new findings, reporting Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) as a pivotal molecule for self‐renewal of FGSCs. In their new STEM CELLS article, Zhang et al. reveal the connection between the CDH22 and GDNF signaling pathways in FGSCs and verify AKT3 as the pivotal molecule of this network.

Metabolic Regulation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Physiology

 

A recent study from a team of researchers from the laboratory of Alexandra J. Harvey (University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) sought to understand how metabolite availability during reprogramming affects the physiology of resultant induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC). In their STEM CELLS article, Spyrou et al. report that while iPSCs retained their somatic cell or origin memory regardless of reprogramming oxygen conditions, deriving iPSC under atmospheric (20%) oxygen resulted in iPSCs displaying an aberrant glycolytic metabolism, shortened telomeres, and transcriptomic instability. Overall, this new study highlights the importance of optimizing nutrient availability during the reprogramming process.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

May 9,2019 What´s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Cardiac Differentiation Review, Comparing Hepatic Stellate Cells, ASC Trial for Pneumosepsis, and Advancing Cardiac Cell Therapy!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Molecular Mechanisms of Cardiac Differentiation

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSCs)‐derived cardiomyocytes may be employed for the treatment of severe heart failure, although current protocols generate low yields of immature cells. To help the field advance, researchers from the laboratory of Jun Fujita (Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan) have reviewed the literature and now summarize currently employed protocols in the hope of creating a knowledge base for the further development of effective therapies. Furthermore, the team also discuss the future challenges we may face in this field; for this, and more, see STEM CELLS now!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells are Functionally Distinct from Hepatic Stellate Cells

Researchers from the labs of Raghavan Chinnadurai and Jacques Galipeau (University of Wisconsin – Madison, USA) recently compared the immune plasticity of two mesenchymal cell types in the hope of generating insight into their potential utility as pharmaceuticals. In their STEM CELLS study, the authors demonstrate how bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and hepatic stellate cells display differing secretome profiles and immune functional responses, likely due to their distinct tissular origins. Can we match distinct diseases and disorders with an optimal stem cell type according to their secretome?

Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Pneumosepsis

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potent immunomodulatory capabilities, and for this reason, researchers from the laboratory of Desirée Perlee (University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) recently sought to assess the effect of adipose‐derived MSC therapy on pneumosepsis in mice. In their recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article, the authors established that human adipose-derived MSCs induced profound immune modulatory effects in the lungs, resulting in reduced bacterial burdens and lung inflammation, suggesting that MSCs may represent an adjunctive therapy in sepsis.

Expanded CD34+ Cells for Cardiac Cell Therapy

Treatment with autologous peripheral blood‐derived CD34-positive stem cells can prompt repair of the damaged myocardial area following infarction. To advance this approach closer to the clinic, researchers led by Claire Saucourt (CellProthera, Mulhouse, France) recently developed an automated device for ex vivo CD34-positive stem cell expansion beginning with whole blood samples. This new system represents a simplified and standardized means to generate high amounts of CD34-positive cells and has opened the way for a clinical phase I/IIb trial, which is currently recruiting patients with severe acute myocardial infarction. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

May 6,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Cardio‐oncology, Naïve Pluripotency, hnRNP‐K in Embryonic Stem Cells, and Insulin’s Role in hESCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Precision Matchmaking for Cardio‐oncology

Chemotherapeutic agents can cause acute and chronic cardiovascular complications; therefore, the development of rigorous preclinical models is necessary to predict human cardiotoxicity and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of cardiotoxicity. A recent review from the lab of Ioannis Karakikes (Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA) now provides an overview of recent advances in preclinical cancer‐related cardiotoxicity testing, or cardio-oncology, focusing on new technologies, such as human induced pluripotent stem cell‐derived cardiomyocytes and tissue engineering. Furthermore, Nair et al. discuss some of the limitations of these technologies and present future directions in thisSTEM CELLS Translational Medicine article.

Activation‐induced Cytidine Deaminase Required for Naïve Pluripotency

Previous studies from the laboratories of Ritu Kumar and Todd Evans (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, USA) demonstrated that activation‐induced cytidine deaminase (AICDA) facilitated the stabilization of pluripotency during reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Now, the team returns with a STEM CELLS study in which they report that Acida−/− iPSCs fail to reach the naïve pluripotent state and remain primed for differentiation due to a failure to suppress FGF/ERK signaling. However, the authors also demonstrate that while mutant cells display marked genomic hypermethylation, the suppression of FGF/ERK signaling by AICDA did not depend on deaminase activity.

A Role for the Poly(C) DNA/RNA‐binding protein hnRNP‐K in Embryonic Stem Cells

Researchers from the laboratory of Alexey N. Tomilin (Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia) recently set out to decipher the role of the ubiquitous and multifunctional poly(C) DNA/RNA‐binding protein hnRNP‐K in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Employing ChIP‐seq analysis, Bakhmet et al. describe several thousand hnRNP‐K target sites frequently co‐occupied by pluripotency‐related and common factors (such as Oct4, TBP, Sox2, Nanog, Otx2) and active histone marks. Furthermore, hnRNP‐K localizes exclusively within open chromatin, implying its role in the onset and maintenance of this chromatin state. For all the fine print, head over to STEM CELLS now!

Insulin Promotes Human Embryonic Stem Cells Survival and Adhesion

While most human embryonic stem cell (hESC) maintenance medium contain insulin, we understand little regarding its role in single cell survival during the passaging process. In a recent STEM CELLS article, researchers led by Guokai Chen (University of Macau, Macau SAR, China) demonstrate that insulin activates the IGF1R/PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibits caspase activation and also stimulates integrin activation and promotes cell‐matrix and cell-cell adhesion. Overall, Godoy‐Parejo et al. establish the insulin/IGF pathway as a central player in cell survival and niche re‐formation during hESC passaging.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

May 2,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Retinal Stem Cell-Based Therapies, Bone Repair by SHEDs, Leukemia Stem Cells, and MSCs from Human Irradiated Skin!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Optimal Conditions for Retinal Stem Cell-Based Therapies

The transplantation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) represents an exciting strategy to treat degenerative retinal blindness, and a recent study from the lab of Elliott H. Sohn (University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA) sought to evaluate the effect of commonly employed cell isolation and surgical manipulation strategies on donor cell viability. In a new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article, Scruggs et al. suggest that needle cannula size, storage time, incubation temperature, and injection rate can influence cell viability and surgical outcomes following their research in Yucatan mini‐pigs.

FGF-2 Priming Enhances Bone Repair by Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Priming dental pulp stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) has been demonstrated to boost angiogenesis, and now, researchers from the lab of Caroline Gorin (Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, France) sought to discover whether this strategy could improve bone formation by SHEDs in the context of craniofacial bone repair. Novais et al. report that FGF‐2 priming significantly enhanced SHED proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in plastically compressed collagen hydrogels and mediated faster intramembranous bone formation in critical size calvarial defects following implantation in immunodeficient mice. For all the fine print, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Targeting Leukemia Stem Cells for Therapeutic Benefit

A recent article from researchers in the laboratories of Haojian Zhang (Wuhan University, Hubei, China) and Shaoguang Li (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA) has discussed leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The team focuses on the identification of unique biological features of these stem cells to emphasize the feasibility and significance of specific targeting of LSCs while sparing normal stem cell counterparts in leukemia therapy. For a great read, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Ex Vivo Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Irradiated Skin

A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article from the lab of Alex K. Wong (Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, USA) aimed to isolate and functionally characterize skin‐derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SMSCs) from human skin previously irradiated as part of neoadjuvant or adjuvant cancer therapy. Johnson et al. now report that in vivo radiotherapy of prompts diminished proliferation and differentiation of SMSCs and alters paracrine secretion, suggesting that ionizing radiation may contribute to chronic nonhealing wounds through these effects.

 

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

April 29,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSCs at Fifty, Hematopoietic Stem Cell Fitness, Aging Effect of Pesticides on MSCs, and Chronic Wound Healing!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells at Fifty Years!

The ever-evolving and continuously expanding field of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research has seen a rise in clinical interest in recent years, with nearly 1,000 registered clinical trials. A recent review article from researchers led by Miroslaw Janowski (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA) aims to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first paper on MSCs from 1968 and discuss their therapeutic activities, including immunomodulation, trophic support, and differentiation in cell replacement strategies. For more, head over to STEM CELLS now!

p53-TIGAR Regulates Fanconi Anemia Hematopoietic Stem Cell Fitness

Researchers led by Wei Du (West Virginia University, West Virginia, USA) recently sought to explore the mechanisms responsible for energetic reprogramming in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by studying the relationship between the predominant role of mitochondrial respiration compared to glycolysis in the maintenance of Fanconi anemia (FA) HSCs. Li et al. now report that an over‐activated p53‐TIGAR metabolic axis correlates to lower glycolysis in FA HSCs. Overall, p53‐TIGAR suppresses glycolysis in FA HSCs, leading to enhanced pentose phosphate pathway and cellular antioxidant function, and consequently reduced DNA damage and HSC exhaustion. Read more over at STEM CELLS!

Pesticides and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aging

A recent study from the laboratories of Francois Vallette and Christophe Olivier (Université de Nantes, France) established that exposure to a low dose mixture of common pesticides induced oxidative stress‐related senescence and a differentiation propensity shift to adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The team now return to report that the same pesticide mixture causes gene and protein expression indicative of an early aging phenotype that prompted the appearance of functional profile modification with similarities to the aging process. Head to STEM CELLS for all the details.

Dermal ABCB5+ Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Chronic Wound Healing

Recent research from the laboratory of Karin Scharffetter‐Kochanek (University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany) demonstrated that the ATP‐binding cassette protein ABCB5 marks a dermal cell subpopulation of the skin with multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) characteristics. The ABCB5+ MSCs maintained stemness and mesenchymal marker expression during long-term in vitro expansion as well as the ability for clonal self‐renewal and, importantly, these cells promoted healing of a non‐healing iron‐overload wound in a murine model. Overall, Vander Beken et al. believe that these ABCB5-positive MSCs may be exploited as a potential regenerative therapy for chronic venous leg ulcers in human patients. For all the fine print, see STEM CELLS now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

April 22,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSC Stemness, MSCs in Osteoarthritis, Diaphragmatic Muscle Constructs, and Shh Distribution!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

TSG-6 Controls Mesenchymal Stem Cell Stemness

Studies have found that the potent tissue‐protective and anti‐inflammatory factor TSG‐6 plays a crucial role in the wound healing abilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), although we have limited knowledge on the specific role of this highly interesting protein. Now, researchers from the laboratory of Stefania Vetrano (Humanitas University, Milan, Italy) report that TSG‐6 acts as an autocrine factor to regulate morphology and MSC cellular processes and is crucial for the maintenance of stemness and biological properties. Romano et al. also show that TSG‐6 loss abrogates immunomodulation and stemness and promotes a more pro‐tumorigenic phenotype. Could TSG‐6 be used as a predictive marker to monitor the effects of MSC‐based therapies? Head over to STEM CELLS now to find out more.

New Mesenchymal Stem Cell Trial for Knee Osteoarthritis

The encouraging results of a new clinical trial of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM‐MSCs) for knee osteoarthritis have recently been published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine. This phase I/IIa trial from the laboratory of Sowmya Viswanathan (University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) assessed safety and efficacy using a broad toolset of analytical methods. Chahal et al. report that autologous BM‐MSCs are safe and treatment results in significant improvements in patient‐reported outcome measures at 12 months, which the authors link to a reduction in the inflammatory nature of the synovial fluid and cartilage degradation. Overall, the authors suggest that their analytical tools will provide a highly predictive donor selection criterion that will be critical in translating MSC therapies for osteoarthritis.

 

Generation of Diaphragmatic Muscle Constructs

Researchers led by Martina Piccoli and Michela Pozzobon (Istituto di Ricerca Pediatrica Città della Speranza, Padova, Italy) recently reported on their continuing efforts to develop a cellular skeletal muscle construct with functional features through the application of mouse decellularized diaphragmatic extracellular matrix (ECM). Using a decellularized matrix stored under different conditions to mimic the off‐the‐shelf clinical need, the authors demonstrated how seeding the decellularized scaffold with pediatric human muscle precursors gave rise to a functioning three‐dimensional skeletal muscle structure. Interestingly, Trevisan et al. also demonstrated that the engineered construct activated a regenerative response in vitro promoting cell self‐renewal and positive ECM remodeling. For more on this fascinating subject, head over to Stem Cells Translational Medicine now!

Gpc5 Inhibits Sonic Hedgehog Distribution in Embryonic Stem Cells

Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is a signaling molecule that functions over several cell diameters and recent research led by Wei Guo and Henk Roelink (University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA) employed mosaic neural organoids formed of genetically distinct cells to assess the requirement of heparan sulfate proteoglycans exclusively in the Shh-producing cells, the Shh‐transporting cells, and the cells responding to Shh. Overall, the duo now demonstrate that heparan sulfate-modified Glypican5, a component of the extracellular matrix, inhibits Shh transport, thus providing an elegant explanation for why Glypican5 is a tumor suppressor. Make your way over to STEM CELLS now for all the fine print.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!