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Highlights of current exciting developments, ranging from research papers to court decisions to industry regulations

March 18, 2019

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Past Buzz

March 11,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? – Treating ALS with MSCs, Transdifferentiation with MIWI2, Exosomes from T1D BM-MSCs, and Esophageal Anastomotic Leakage Therapy!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Necroptosis in ALS Model Mice

A recent study from Pavla Jendelova (Czech Academy of Science/Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic) sought to discover how human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) therapy functions when applied as a treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using a SOD1 rat model, Řehořová et al. demonstrated how repeated intrathecal and intramuscular application of hMSCs extended life span and protected motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions through the inhibition of the apoptosis, autophagy, and, importantly,  necroptosis cell death pathways. For all the details, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

The function of Somatic MIWI2 during Transdifferentiation

In a recent attempt to delineate roles for PIWI proteins in somatic cells and in cancer development, researchers from the lab of Guang Yang (ShanghaiTech University, China) recently uncovered a role for the MIWI2 in cell plasticity. Shi et al. report that MIWI2 aids the trans‐differentiation of fibroblasts into hepatocyte‐like cells and describe how piRNA biogenesis responds to cell fate conversion, consistent with the proposed mechanism of piRNA acting as an “immune system” in the cell. Discover more about this fascinating study at STEM CELLS!

Impaired Effect of BM-MSC Exosomes in Type 1 Diabetes

Tissue regeneration using stem cell-derived exosomes represents a growing and potentially exciting field and recently, researchers from the labs of Yimin Chai and Jia Xu (Shanghai Jiao Tong University, PR China) sought to compare the bone regenerative capacity of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC)-derived exosomes from healthy and type 1 diabetes (T1D) rats. Interestingly, Zhu et al. now report that T1D impairs the ability of BM-MSC exosomes to regenerate bone in a study with significant relevance to future clinical translation. For more, see the original article at STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and the associated press release at the Stem Cells Portal.

Stem-Cell Therapy for Esophageal Anastomotic Leakage

As currently available therapies remain unsatisfactory, researchers from the lab of Hao Zhang (Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, PR China) recently sought to harness the healing effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a treatment for esophageal anastomotic leakage, a devastating complication following esophageal resection. In their STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, Xue et al. now report that the transplantation of MSCs within a fibrin scaffold suppressed inflammation, promoted higher closure rate, and reduced the infection rate in a rabbit model. Great news!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

March 4,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - KLF4-mediated Self-renewal, iPSC-derived Neutrophils, Modelling with iPSC Microglia, and Mouse ESC Proliferation!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Reviewing KLF4 Regulation of Self-Renewal of ESCs and HSCs

Delineating the molecular regulation of self‐renewal in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) represents an essential step towards a deeper understanding of stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. However, this knowledge can also help to address the resistance of hematological malignancies to drug therapy and to develop novel therapies specific to leukemia stem cells, which represents an unmet medical need. Now, a new Review article from the lab of Daniel Lacorazza (Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA) discusses the role of the KLF4 reprogramming factor in the regulation of self‐renewal in embryonic stem cells and normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Neutrophils Derived from Genetically Modified Human iPSC

The differentiation of patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into neutrophils may represent an efficient means to generate sufficient cell numbers to treat neutropenic patients to prevent infection. Researchers led by Jose A. Cancelas and Carolyn Lutzko (Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Ohio, USA) established that while iPSC derived neutrophils displayed reduced functionality, expression of a constitutively activated AKT restored most phagocytic activity and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Furthermore, Trump et al. report that these genetically modified neutrophils function adequately in a model of bacterial-induced peritonitis in immunodeficient mice. Discover more over at STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

Modeling Neurodegeneration with iPSC Microglia

Microglia and neuroinflammation fins themselves at the center of current research efforts to identify targets to treat a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. However, failures of recent drug candidates in clinical trials highlight the unfortunate truth that results from mouse models have only limited transferability to the human clinical setting. A recent Review article from the labs of Walther Haenseler (University of Zurich, Schlieren, Switzerland) and Lawrence Rajendran (King's College London, UK) now summarizes the potential of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) derived neuron/microglia co‐cultures as an authentic human, preclinical tool, for drug candidate validation. Read all about it in STEM CELLS now!

Sympk/Oct4 Promote Mouse ESC Proliferation

While studies have observed high levels of expression of the Symplekin (Sympk) scaffold protein in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), its overall role remains undescribed. However, a recent STEM CELLS paper from the labs of Wenbin Ma and Junjiu Huang (SunYat‐sen University, Guangzhou, PR China) sought to fill this knowledge gap. Yu et al. now report that the maintenance of the pluripotent state requires Sympk expression, with subsequent results suggesting that Sympk interacts with Oct4 to promote self‐renewal and pluripotency in ESCs and preserves genome integrity. For more, head over to STEM CELLS now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 28,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - MSC Homing, iPSC-MSC Misidentification, Attenuating T1D Bone Loss, and Coordinated Tissue Repair!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

CREKA Improves the Targeted Homing Ability of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

A team of researchers from Fudan University, Shanghai (China) recently sought to improve mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) homing to the injured myocardium to improve therapeutic outcomes. To this end, the authors modified MSCs with a homing peptide (cysteine-arginine-glutamic acid-lysine-alanine - CREKA) that targets fibrin, which is involved in the repair process of tissue injury. Overall, this STEM CELLS article establishes their CREKA-associated approach as an efficient means to enhance homing in vitro and in vivo, highlighting the utility of active fibrin targeting in cardiac cellular therapy.

Lineage Misidentification of iPSC-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Previous comparisons between bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived MSCs have revealed variances in trilineage differentiation potential, even though marker expression profiles display broad similarities. In a recent STEM CELLS article, researchers from the lab of Frank Barry (National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland) set out to reveal the cellular basis underlying these differences. Interestingly, Xu et al. established that while iPSC-MSCs share phenotypic traits with BM‐MSCs in terms of standard cell surface marker expression profiles, they exhibit markedly different gene expression profiles, especially in genes associated with vascular progenitor cell function.

 

Bone Morphogenetic Protein‐6 Attenuates Type I Diabetes-Associated Bone Loss

Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often suffer from bone loss and increased risk of bone fracture, although the connecting mechanism linking hyperglycemia and bone remains unknown. Now, researchers from the lab of Wan‐Ju Li (University of Wisconsin‐Madison, USA) report that bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) from streptozotocin‐induced diabetic mice display lower levels of bone morphogenetic protein‐6 (BMP6) and reduced osteogenic potential. However, Wang et al. also established that intraperitoneal injection of BMP6 mitigated bone loss and increased bone mineral density in diabetic mice. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Coordinated Tissue Repair with TGF‐β activated kinase 1

Researchers from the labs of Benjamin Levi and Yuji Mishina (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA) recently employed a model of musculoskeletal injury to demonstrate that loss of TGF‐β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signaling reduces inappropriate tissue formation (heterotopic ossification) through reduced cellular differentiation. Employing a mouse model, Hsieh et al. then inactivated and reactivated the Tak1 gene, revealing that this can improve bony healing through the coordination of increased proliferation followed by differentiation. This approach elucidates a new paradigm in regenerative medicine in which coordination between treatment and withdrawal of treatment can augment healing. For all the juicy details, make your way to STEM CELLS now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 25,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - RPE Transplantation, Stable Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrinogen-cultured iPSCs, and Boosting Fat Graft Survival!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Update on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Transplantation

A review from the lab of Marco Zarbin (Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey, USA) brings us an update on cell‐based therapies for the treatment of age‐related macular degeneration (AMD), a vision‐threatening disease. This STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article focuses on the application of retinal pigment epithelium in cell transplants as a rescue or replacement therapy. The authors highlight cell‐based therapy as a potentially useful approach in chronic degenerative retinal disease, but also note the abnormal microenvironment of the host, surgery‐induced changes in the host retina, and the need for immunosuppressive therapy for subretinal allogeneic retinal pigment epithelium transplants as significant obstacles.

In Vivo Formation of Stable Hyaline Cartilage by Bone Marrow Stem Cells

An exciting study from researchers led by Pamela G. Robey (NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) and Raphael Gorodetsky (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) reports the first formation of stable cartilage in vivo by human bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Kuznetsov et al. employed fibrin microbeads coated with hyaluronic acid as a scaffold as support for naïve BMSCs to provide new possibilities for the restoration of damaged articular cartilage in regenerative medicine and for modeling of human cartilage diseases in vivo. For all the details, see STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Cultured on Fibrinogen Hydrogels

Researchers from the lab of Alan Marmorstein (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA) recently sought to address the lack of culture substrate options for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) destined for clinical applications by exploring the potential of biocompatible, non-xenogenic, autologous use-compatible, and biodegradable human fibrin hydrogels. Encouragingly, Gandhi et al. now report that iPSCs cultured on fibrinogen retain their pluripotent characteristics, their ability to differentiate into cells representative of the three germ layers, and their ability to be directly differentiated into endothelial cells. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for more information.

Fructose 1,6‐bisphosphate Promotes Survival of Fat Grafting

The success of fat grafting as a regenerative therapy relies on the survival of cells in an ischemic microenvironment. Now, researchers from Peking Union Medical College in Beijing (China) tested the fructose 1,6‐bisphosphate (FBP) energy metabolism intermediate as a means to rescue cells and tissues from hypoxia‐ischemia. The authors now report that FBP treatment improved fat graft survival post-implantation by enhancing adipocyte viability and function, increasing vascularization, reducing inflammatory infiltration, and promoting the viability of adipose‐derived stem cells (ASCs). For more information on how FBP may improve the efficacy of fat grafts and other substitute biomaterials, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 18,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - SCNT-hESC Endothelial Cells, Adult Prostatic Progenitors, Exosome‐educated Macrophages, and Prostate Cancer treatment with MSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Functional human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer ESC-derived Endothelial Cells

Researchers from Konkuk University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) recently sought to discover the functional potential of human embryonic stem cells they previously derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (hNT-ESCs). In their article, Park et al. report that endothelial cells differentiated from hNT-ESCs displayed signature endothelial characteristics in vitro, including tubule formation and uptake of acetylated low-density lipoprotein. However, they displayed lower angiogenic potential following transplantation into a mouse ischemic limb model when compared to endothelial cells differentiated from hESCs. For all the details, see STEM CELLS now!

Sox2 Marks Adult Prostatic Progenitors

The identification of defined epithelial cell populations with progenitor properties represents a critical step towards a deeper understanding of prostatic development and disease. Now, researchers led by Donald J. Vander Griend (University of Illinois at Chicago, USA) report the enrichment of Sox2 expression in the epithelial cells of the proximal prostate adjacent to the urethra. Lineage tracing of Sox2‐positive cells during prostatic development, homeostasis, and regeneration demonstrated that the Sox2 lineage self‐renews and contributes to prostatic regeneration. Furthermore, this new STEM CELLS study also reports that persisting luminal cells express Sox2 after castration, highlighting a potential role for Sox2 in cell survival and castration‐resistance.

Exosome‐educated Macrophages Promote Achilles Tendon Healing

Recent results out of the labs of Ray Vanderby and Peiman Hematti (University of Wisconsin‐Madison, USA) discovered that extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can induce macrophages into a pro-regenerative M2 immunophenotype, generating exosome‐educated macrophages (EEMs). Now the team returns with a new study in which Chamberlain et al. report how EMMs accelerated biological and functional healing of tendon injury, thereby providing a safe and easy therapeutic strategy that may have applications in other inflammatory conditions. For more information, see STEM CELLS now!

Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Prostate Cancer

As animal models have shown that systemically administered bone marrow‐derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) home to sites of primary and metastatic prostate cancer, thereby making them candidates to selectively deliver cytotoxic agents, a new trial conducted by Michael T. Schweizer (University of Washington, USA) and Samuel R. Denmeade (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA) recently tested the homing of systemically infused allogeneic MSCs pre-prostatectomy in a phase I study. The results, published in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, suggested the overall safety of this approach; however, MSCs did not accumulate within prostate cancer foci, thereby providing evidence against the further development as a cell‐based therapeutic delivery strategy employing current ex vivo expansion protocols.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 14,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Stem Cell-Derived EVs, Photoreceptor Neuritogenesis, Diabetic Dogs for Translational Research, and Skeletal Muscle MSC Delivery!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Proteome of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Extracellular Vesicles from Metabolic Syndrome Pigs

Researchers from the lab of Lilach O. Lerman (Mayo Clinic, Minnesota, USA) recently sought to discover if cardiovascular risk factors transformed the protein content of extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Interestingly, Eirin et al. report that MSC-EVs derived from pigs with metabolic syndrome carried a more pro‐inflammatory signature than control pigs and hypothesized that this change might impair damaged tissue regeneration. The authors hope that their findings, reported in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine will support the development of strategies to improve the therapeutic potential of MSCs and MSC-EVs in both healthy and metabolic syndrome patients.

 

Studying Donated Photoreceptor Neuritogenesis

Recent research from the labs of Philip EB Nickerson and Valerie Wallace (University Health Network, Toronto, Canada) focused on investigating the effect of the host retinal environment on donor photoreceptor neurite outgrowth. Interestingly, Tsai et al. report novel roles for Crx, Müller glia, and Rho/ROCK signalling in controlling neurite outgrowth and provide an accessible in vitro model for the screening of factors that regulate donor‐host connectivity. The authors of this new STEM CELLS study hope that their findings will aid future work aiming to enhance the connectivity of transplanted photoreceptors.

Reviewing the Application of Diabetic Dogs for Translational Research

A new review article from the laboratory of Amir Kol (University of California, Davis, USA) outlines the therapeutic approaches and animal models employed and considers the overall value of canine diabetes mellitus (DM) as a translational animal/disease model for type 1 diabetes (T1D) in human patients. Moshref et al. highlight canine pancreatic islet physiology, comparative pathology of T1D and spontaneous canine DM, regenerative medicine approaches to treat T1D, the current state of regenerative medicine research in dogs, significant challenges in T1D‐specific regenerative medicine translational research, future perspectives, and more (phew)! Head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for all the info!

Skeletal Muscle for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Delivery

Our second review article this week from the labs of Shiva Hamidian Jahromi and John E. Davies (University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada) summarizes current thinking regarding intramuscular (IM) delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the potential advantage of this site to treatment regimes. Overall, the authors highlight skeletal muscle injections as a safe means to promote prolonged dwell time in the body (when compared to the few days observed with intravenous injection) and enhance secretory output. The authors of this new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine article aim to provide a brief overview of the fate and efficacy of IM‐delivered MSCs and to identify the gaps that require further assessment for the adoption of this promising route in the treatment of systemic disease.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 11,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - von Willebrand Factor Expression, Allogeneic Limbal Stem Cell Therapy, FOXD3 in Lung Cancer, and SHED-EV Treatment of PD!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Regulation of von Willebrand Factor Gene Expression during Endothelial Differentiation

To generate a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the attainment of an endothelial phenotype, researchers led by Nadia Jahroudi (University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) studied the expression of a highly endothelial‐specific gene, von Willebrand factor, during the endothelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from primary endothelial cells. In their new STEM CELLS article, Nakhaei‐Nejad et al. highlight the general importance of alterations in chromatin modifications surrounding the VWF gene, in addition to expression and binding of trans-acting factors that function as activators, towards the establishment of endothelial-specific regulation of the VWF gene.

Allogeneic Limbal Stem Cell Therapy Trial for LSCD Reveals Feasibility and Safety

A recent STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study from the lab of John D. M. Campbell (Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service, Edinburgh, UK) reports the results of a controlled multicenter trial to examine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of allogeneic corneal epithelial stem cells in the treatment of bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). The outcomes of the fully controlled trial, including a control product and use of immunosuppression, provided definitive measurements of the effects of limbal stem cell transplant, evidence of sustained improvement in ocular surface score in the stem cell arm, and some proof of improved visual acuity. Great news!

FOXD3 Suppresses Tumor-initiating Features in Lung Cancer Tumor-initiating Cells

The FOXD3 forkhead box transcription factor regulates the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and tumorigenicity, although studies have yet to describe a role in tumor‐initiating cells (TICs). Now, a STEM CELLS article from researchers led by Jianru Xiao and Cong Jiang (Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China) demonstrates that downregulation of FOXD3 in TICs correlated with higher histologic grades and lymph node metastasis, while FOXD3 expression repressed TIC expansion and cell migration, drug resistance, and osteoclasts. Mechanically, the authors established that FOXD3 represses WDR5 (a protein that regulates TIC-related signaling pathway), that WDR5 expression correlated with TIC abundance and tumor progression, and, finally, that patients displaying high WDR5 expression presented poorer survival.

Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth Stem Cell-derived EVs Improve Motor Symptoms in PD Mouse Model

As extracellular vesicles (EVs) can cross the blood-brain barrier, they represent a promising novel means to treat neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Now, researchers from the lab of Augustas Pivoriūnas (State Research Institute Centre for Innovative Medicine, Vilnius, Lithuania) assessed the potential for the intranasal delivery of EVs derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth stem cells (SHEDs) in a unilateral 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA) medial forebrain bundle rat model of PD. Narbute et al. now report that EVs effectively suppress 6‐OHDA‐induced gait impairments and normalize tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the striatum and the substantia nigra of experimental rats. See STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now for more details on this first report demonstrating the therapeutic efficacy of intranasally administered EVs in the unilateral 6‐OHDA rat model of PD.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

February 4,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - iPSC-derived Photoreceptor Precursors, Periarticular MSCs, Endocrine Specification, and iPSC Treatment of Acute Lung Injury!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

CRX expression in Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Photoreceptors

New research from the lab of Majlinda Lako (Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom) sought to transcriptionally profile CRX‐expressing photoreceptor precursors derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and test their engraftment capacity in an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa characterized by rapid photoreceptor degeneration. Collin et al. now that that photoreceptor precursors characterized by CRX expression are homogenous and committed to an early cone phenotype, while transplantation of these cells into degenerated retinae promotes the formation of connections with the host interneurons and maturation into cones. For more on how photoreceptor precursors may restore vision in degenerative models of retinal disease, see STEM CELLS now!

 

Periarticular Mesenchymal Stem Cells Form the Secondary Ossification Center

The development of the long bones involves the embryonic formation of a primary ossification center (POC) in the diaphysis followed by postnatal development of secondary ossification centers (SOC) at each epiphysis. To understand more about SOC formation, researchers from the lab of Ling Qin (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA) employed fluorescent reporter mice to demonstrate how a layer of highly fluorescent cells along the epiphyseal surface contain the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) responsible for initiating SOC formation, recruiting surrounding vessels, and establishing all mesenchymal lineage cells within this bone compartment. See STEM CELLS now for all the details!

Protein Methyltransferase Activity in Endocrine Specification

Previous studies from the lab of Anthony Gavalas (Technische Universität Dresden, Germany) discovered that loss of Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1b1 (Aldh1b1) activity accelerates differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells and the formation of deficient β cells. The teams now return with a STEM CELLS study, in which Giannios et al. demonstrate how AMI‐5, a protein methyltransferase inhibitor, acts as an Aldh1b1 inducer that maintains Aldh1b1 expression in embryonic pancreas explants and leads to a selective reduction in endocrine specification. Overall, this new study implicates methyltransferase activity in the regulation of endocrine differentiation and establishes that methyltransferases act through specific regulators during pancreas differentiation.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Reduce Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

While induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can attenuate the pathological severity and neutrophil migration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced acute lung injury (ALI), interactions between iPSCs and the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family of proteins remain unclear. Now, new research from the lab pf Kuang‐Yao Yang (National Yang‐Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan) now establishes that the administration of iPSCs reduces neutrophil infiltration by reversing LPS‐induced TREM‐1 overexpression in lung tissue and resulted in lower levels of the pro‐inflammatory cytokines, macrophage inflammatory protein‐2, tumor necrosis factor‐α, interleukin‐6, and interleukin‐1β, as well as vascular cell adhesion molecule‐1, via the p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Discover more about this fascinating new study at STEM CELLS.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

January 31,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - Craniofacial Bone Defect Repair, Islet Regeneration, MSC Chondrogenic Potential, and Chronic Pancreatitis MSCs!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Dental Pulp Stem Cells Directly Participate in Calvaria Defect Repair

The osteogenic properties of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have prompted research into their potential application in craniofacial bone repair. Now, a new STEM CELLS study from the lab of Anne Poliard (University Paris Descartes, Montrouge, France) has explored the repair process via studies in a mouse model of craniofacial bone defects. Interestingly, Collignon et al. establish the direct involvement of mouse DPSCs in repair via an endochondral bone ossification‐like process, thus paving the way for a deeper appreciation of the central molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling bone repair before their translation to clinical applications.

Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Media Induce Islet Regeneration

While factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can induce islet regeneration, thereby representing a potential treatment for people living with diabetes, the specific identity of the critical regenerative factors remains unknown. Researchers from the laboratory of David A. Hess (Western University, London, Ontario, Canada) recently demonstrated that activation of Wnt‐signaling via GSK3‐inhibition during the generation of MSC conditioned medium (CM) promoted the subsequent β‐cell mass recovery following intrapancreatic injection of said CM in a mouse model of diabetes. Kuljanin et al. anticipate that findings such as these will contribute to the development of cell‐free therapies to combat diabetes. For more details, see STEM CELLS now!

Markers for the Chondrogenic Potential of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Researchers from the laboratory of Ivan Martin (University of Basel and University Hospital Basel, Switzerland) recently sought to cut through the heterogeneous nature of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) by identifying cell surface markers that would identify those cells with higher chondrogenic capacity. In their new STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, Stüdle et al. report CD56 as a potential predictive marker with the ability to select BM-MSC subpopulations with higher and more predictable chondrogenic capacity. However, the authors still note that donor‐to‐donor variability still profoundly affects differentiation propensity.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Chronic Pancreatitis Patients are Suitable for Cell Therapy

New research from the lab of Hongjun Wang (Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA) sought to discover if mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients can be employed as an autologous cell therapy approach. Interestingly, Wang et al. now report that MSCs derived from CP patients display a similar phenotype and therapeutic capacity when compared to MSCs derived from healthy donors, suggesting that the transplant of MSCs with islets may improve islet transplantation outcome. For all the fine print, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine now!

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!

January 27,2019 What’s the Stem Cells Buzz this Week? - CHD7 in Glioblastoma, Autophagy in Hyperglycemia, MSC Secretome in Corneal Healing, and CS-GAG in Bone Regeneration!

The Stem Cells Portal brings you a roundup of some of the new and exciting stories in the ever-changing world of stem cells, regenerative medicine, and beyond!

Microenvironment and Angiogenic Properties of CHD7 in Glioblastoma

Recent research from the lab of Anita B. Hjelmeland (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA) sought to understand how the ischemic environment promotes the development of glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. In their STEM CELLS paper, Boyd et al. identify the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) as a novel ischemia‐regulated gene whose expression decreases in brain tumor-initiating cells and neural stem cells and affects angiogenesis. The authors hope that these findings will have important implications in the study of normal development, stem cells, and cancer.

Melatonin Protects Neural Stem Cells from Autophagy in Hyperglycemia

Gestational diabetes can promote the dysfunction of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the onset of fetal neuropathy; however, melatonin treatment may represent a protective therapy. Now, researchers from the laboratory of Shilei Ni (Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, PR China) report that hyperglycemia inhibits proliferation and induces premature differentiation of NSCs by promoting autophagy and autophagic flux. However, Li et al. also demonstrate that melatonin can counteract this effect and maintain normal proliferation and differentiation in NSCs by modulating autophagy, which protects NSCs mainly by downregulating Beclin‐1 and up modulating mTORC1 signaling. For more on the potential of melatonin as a treatment for gestational diabetes, see STEM CELLS now!

Corneal Healing Effects of the MSC Secretome in Hyaluronic Acid and Chondroitin Sulfate Gel

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy may represent an effective means to treat severe corneal injuries and the associated vision loss, mainly through the secretion of anti-scarring, anti‐inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic factors. Now, a study out of the labs of David Myung (Stanford University, California) and Ali R. Djalilian (University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA) established that the lyophilized secretome of MSCs reconstituted within a viscoelastic gel of hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate enhances corneal epithelial wound healing in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, this strategy mitigates the development of stromal scarring and neovascularization after chemical burns in vivo. For more information on this fascinating study, head over to STEM CELLS Translational Medicine.

Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Cell and Protein-Based Bone Regeneration

New research from the lab of Steven Stice (University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA) sought to extend the duration of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP‐2) exposure in order to enhance the treatment of large bone defects. In their STEM CELLS Translational Medicine study, Andrews et al. now establish chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (CS‐GAG) scaffolds as a delivery vehicle for recombinant human BMP‐2 (rhBMP‐2) and rhBMP‐2 expression via human BMP‐2 gene inserted into mesenchymal stem cells (BMP‐2 MSC). Both these strategies induced comparable bone formation, as measured by bone volume, strength, and stiffness, when compared to rhBMP‐2-laden collagen sponge, the current standard treatment.

That’s a wrap for now! Please feel free to leave a comment and discuss the papers covered here on the Stem Cells Buzz. Happy reading!