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miRNAs Regulates hNSC Fate Via the Mitochondrion

A recent STEM CELLS article from researchers led by Yogita K. Adlakha (National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India) describes the derivation of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that faithfully display immunoreactivity towards NSC markers and serve as a model to study neurological diseases. Using this model, Channakkar et al. show that a brain enriched small non‐coding RNA (miR‐137) enhances neuronal differentiation by inducing mitochondrial biogenesis, fusion, fission, and oxidative phosphorylation. The authors hope that this newly described pathway may facilitate the design of treatments for aging‐associated neurodegenerative diseases.